13 December 1917|
Granschütz, Province of Saxony
11 August 1985
|Buried at||City cemetery at Nidda (Section D, Grave 42)|
|Years of service||1936–45|
|Commands held||4./JG 2, II./JG 2, JG 2|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords|
Kurt Bühligen (13 December 1917 – 11 August 1985) was a German World War II flying ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until early 1945. Credited with downing 112 enemy aircraft, he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords.
Bühligen claimed his first aerial victory — a Hawker Hurricane over Kent — on 4 September 1940 and was awarded the Ritterkreuz a year later after 20 further claims.
In December 1942 Bühligen served with II./JG 2 in Tunisia and North Africa, claiming some 40 Allied kills before returning to Europe in March 1943. By March 1944 he had scored 96 kills and was now a Major in command of II./JG 2. After 12 more kills Bühligen led JG 2 in carrying out operations against the Soviet advance on the Eastern Front. In early 1945, now Geschwaderkommodore of JG 2, an engine failure caused Bühligen to be taken prisoner by the Soviets, being finally released in 1950.
He shot down some 112 enemy aircraft in over 700 operations, becoming the fourth highest Luftwaffe scorer against the Western Allies. All his victories were claimed over the Western Front and North Africa and included 47 Spitfires and 46 United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) victims; 13 P-38, 9 P-47 and 24 four-engine bombers. He was never shot down but had to make emergency landings on 3 occasions. His final command was Geschwaderkommodore of the JG 2 fighter wing.
- Wound Badge in Silver
- Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe (24 July 1941)
- Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold with Pennant "700"
- Combined Pilots-Observation Badge
- German Cross in Gold on 25 June 1943 as Leutnant in the 4./JG 2
- Iron Cross (1939)
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
- Knight's Cross on 4 September 1941 as Oberfeldwebel and pilot in the II./JG 2 "Richthofen"[Notes 1]
- 413th Oak Leaves on 2 March 1944 as Major (war officer) and Gruppenkommandeur of the II./JG 2 "Richthofen"
- 88th Swords on 14 August 1944 as Major (war officer) and Geschwaderkommodore of JG 2 "Richthofen"
- According to Scherzer in the 4./JG 2
- Obermaier 1989, p. 38.
- Patzwall and Scherzer 2001, p. 67.
- MacLean 2007, p. 89.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 148.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 250.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 79.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 88.
- Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger.
- MacLean, French L. (2007). Luftwaffe Efficiency & Promotion Reports — For the Knight's Cross Winners. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 978-0-7643-2657-8.
- Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1941 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall.
- Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York:
- Schaulen, Fritjof (2003). Eichenlaubträger 1940 – 1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe I Abraham – Huppertz [Oak Leaves Bearers 1940 – 1945 Contemporary History in Color I Abraham – Huppertz] (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag.
- "Lexikon der Wehrmacht". Kurt Bühlingen. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
- "Ritterkreuzträger 1939–45". Kurt Bühligen. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Major Kurt Ubben
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 2 Richthofen
April 28, 1944 – May 8, 1945