Korarchaeota

Korarchaeota

Korarchaeota
Scanning electron micrograph of the Obsidian Pool enrichment culture, showing Korarchaeota.
Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: "Proteoarchaeota" or "Korarchaeota"
Phylum: 'Korarchaeota' Barns et al. 1996
species
Synonyms
  • Korarchaeota Barns et al. 1996
  • Xenarchaea
  • Xenarchaeota

In taxonomy, the Korarchaeota are a phylum of the Archaea.[1] The name is derived from the Greek noun koros or kore, meaning ‘‘young man’’ or ‘‘young woman,’’ and the Greek adjective archaios which means ‘‘ancient.’’[2] They are also known as Xenarchaeota.

Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that they are a deeply branching lineage that does not belong to the main archaeal groups, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota.[3] Analysis of the genome of one korarchaeote that was enriched from a mixed culture revealed a number of both Crenarchaeota- and Euryarchaeota-like features and supports the hypothesis of a deep-branching ancestry.[4]

Contents

  • Ecology 1
  • References 2
  • Further reading 3
    • Scientific journals 3.1
    • Scientific books 3.2
    • Scientific databases 3.3
  • External links 4

Ecology

The Korarchaeota have only been found in high temperature hydrothermal environments. They appear to have diversified at different phylogenetic levels according to temperature, salinity (freshwater or seawater), and/or geography.[5] Korarchaeota have been found in nature in only low abundance.[5][6][7]

Each of these six hot springs (from top left, clockwise: Uzon4, Uzon7, Uzon8, Uzon9, Mut11, Mut13) in Kamchatka were found to contain Korarchaeota.
Each of these six hot springs (clockwise from top left: Uzon4, Uzon7, Uzon8, Uzon9, Mut11, Mut13) in Kamchatka was found to contain Korarchaeota.[5]

References

  1. ^ See the  
  2. ^ James G. Elkins et al., A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea, Harvard University, PNAS, June 10, 2008, Vol. 105, no. 23, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0801980105
  3. ^ Barns SM, Delwiche CF, Palmer JD, Pace NR. (August 1996). "Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (17): 9188–93.  
  4. ^ Elkins JG, Podar M, Graham DE, Makarova KS, Wolf Y, Randau L, Hedlund BP, Brochier-Armanet C, Kunin V, Anderson I, Lapidus A, Goltsman E, Barry K, Koonin EV, Hugenholtz P, Kyrpides N, Wanner G, Richardson P, Keller M, Stetter KO. (July 2008). "A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 (1): 8805–6.  
  5. ^ a b c Auchtung TA, Shyndriayeva G, Cavanaugh CM. (2011). "16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis and quantification of Korarchaeota indigenous to the hot springs of Kamchatka, Russia". Extremophiles 15 (1): 105–116.  
  6. ^ Reigstad LJ, Jorgensen SL, Schleper C (2010). "Diversity and abundance of Korarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs of Iceland and Kamchatka". ISME J 4 (3): 346–56.  
  7. ^ Auchtung Thomas A. (2007) Ecology of the hydrothermal candidate archaeal division, Korarchaeota. PhD thesis, Harvard University.

Further reading

Scientific journals

  • Stackebrandt, E; Frederiksen W; Garrity GM; Grimont PA; Kampfer P; Maiden MC; Nesme X; Rossello-Mora R; Swings J; Truper HG; Vauterin L; Ward AC; Whitman WB (2002). "Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 3): 1043–1047.  
  • Gurtler, V; Mayall BC (2001). "Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 1): 3–16.  
  • Dalevi, D; Hugenholtz P; Blackall LL (2001). "A multiple-outgroup approach to resolving division-level phylogenetic relationships using 16S rDNA data". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 385–391.  
  • Keswani, J; Whitman WB (2001). "Relationship of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to DNA hybridization in prokaryotes". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 667–678.  
  • Young, JM (2001). "Implications of alternative classifications and horizontal gene transfer for bacterial taxonomy". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 3): 945–953.  
  • Christensen, H; Bisgaard M; Frederiksen W; Mutters R; Kuhnert P; Olsen JE (2001). "Is characterization of a single isolate sufficient for valid publication of a new genus or species? Proposal to modify recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 6): 2221–2225.  
  • Christensen, H; Angen O; Mutters R; Olsen JE; Bisgaard M (2000). "DNA-DNA hybridization determined in micro-wells using covalent attachment of DNA". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1095–1102.  
  • Xu, HX; Kawamura Y; Li N; Zhao L; Li TM; Li ZY; Shu S; Ezaki T (2000). "A rapid method for determining the G+C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. Syst.Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1463–1469.  
  • Young, JM (2000). "Suggestions for avoiding on-going confusion from the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1687–1689. [No abstract available.  
  • Hansmann, S; Martin W (2000). "Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is conserved across prokaryotic genomes: influence of excluding poorly alignable sites from analysis". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1655–1663.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposal to change the Rule governing the designation of type strains deposited under culture collection numbers allocated for patent purposes". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1317–1319.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposal to change Rule 18a, Rule 18f and Rule 30 to limit the retroactive consequences of changes accepted by the ICSB". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1321–1322.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Misunderstanding the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1313–1316.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposals to update and make changes to the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1309–1312.  
  • Palys, T; Nakamura LK; Cohan FM (1997). "Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial world: the role of DNA sequence data". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (4): 1145–1156.  
  • Euzeby, JP (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (2): 590–592.  
  • Burggraf, S; Heyder P; Eis N (1997). "A pivotal Archaea group". Nature 385 (6619): 780.  
  • Barns, SM; Delwiche CF; Palmer JD; Pace NR (1996). "Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (17): 9188–9193.  
  • Clayton, RA; Sutton G; Hinkle PS Jr; Bult C; Fields C (1995). "Intraspecific variation in small-subunit rRNA sequences in GenBank: why single sequences may not adequately represent prokaryotic taxa". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45 (3): 595–599.  
  • Barns, SM; Fundyga RE; Jeffries MW; Pace NR (1994). "Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (5): 1609–1613.  
  • Murray, RG; Schleifer KH (1994). "Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44 (1): 174–176.  
  • Winker, S; Woese CR (1991). "A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14 (4): 305–310.  
  • Woese, CR; Kandler O; Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87 (12): 4576–4579.  
  • Achenbach-Richter, L; Woese CR (1988). "The ribosomal gene spacer region in archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 10: 211–214.  
  • McGill, TJ; Jurka J; Sobieski JM; Pickett MH; Woese CR; Fox GE (1986). "Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 7: 194–197.  
  • Woese, CR; Olsen GJ (1984). "The phylogenetic relationships of three sulfur dependent archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5: 97–105.  
  • Woese, CR; Fox GE (1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74 (11): 5088–5090.  

Scientific books

Scientific databases

External links