King of poland

"Queen of Poland" redirects here. For queens consort of Poland, see List of Polish consorts.
This list concerns the historical monarchs of Poland, from the Middle Ages to 1795 and 19th and early 20th century claimants to the Polish throne. For presidents and other heads of state of Poland during the 20th and 21st centuries, see List of heads of state of Poland.
Part of a series on the
History of Poland
Topics
Prehistory and protohistory
Middle Ages
Piast period 966–1385
Jagiellonian period 1385–1572
Early Modern
Early elective monarchy 1572–1648
Deluge and decline 1648–1764
Three partitions 1764–95
Late Modern
Partitioned Poland 1795–1918
World War I 1914–18
Second Republic 1918–39
World War II 1939–45
Communist Poland 1945–89
Contemporary
Third Republic 1989–present
Poland portal

Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellonians (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Legendary rulers

Ruler Tribe Reign Notes
Lech Lechites 6th century legendary founder of the Polish nation
Krakus Lechites 8th century legendary founder of Kraków
Wanda Lechites 8th century legendary daughter of Krakus

Semi-legendary rulers of the western Polans (Greater Poland)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Popiel І Popielids Duke, 9th century a semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans
Popiel ІІ Popielids Duke, 9th century a semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans
Siemowit Piast Duke, 9th century semi-legendary
son of Piast the Wheelwright
Lestek Piast Duke, 9th-10th centuries semi-legendary
son of Siemowit
Siemomysł Piast Duke, 10th century semi-legendary
son of Lestko

Monarchs of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Mieszko I of Poland Piast Duke 960?–992 son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Bolesław I the Brave Piast Duke 992–1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
first to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Mieszko II Lambert Piast King 1025–1031 son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of Lusatia
Bezprym Piast Duke 1031–1032 son of Bolesław I and Judith of Hungary (disputed)
Otto Bolesławowic Piast Duke 1032 son of Bolesław I and Emnilda
Theodorick
(Dytryk)
Piast Duke 1032 grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben
Mieszko II Lambert Piast Duke 1032–1034 restored
Bolesław the Forgotten Piast Duke 1034–1039 semi-legendary, existence disputed
Casimir I the Restorer Piast Duke 1039–1058 son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia
Bolesław II the Bold Piast Duke 1058–1076
King 1076–1079
son of Kazimierz (Casimir) I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev
Władysław I Herman Piast Duke 1079–1102 son of Kazimierz (Casimir) I and Maria Dobroniega
Zbigniew Piast Duke 1098–1107 son of Władysław (Ladislas) I and Przecława, Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
first jointly with Ladislas I 1098-1102
Bolesław III Wrymouth Piast Duke 1107–1138 son of Władysław (Ladislas) I and Judith of Bohemia
first jointly with Władysław (Ladislas)1098-1102
introduced senioral principle
Władysław II the Exile Piast High Duke 1138–1146 son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław IV the Curly Piast High Duke 1146–1173 son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1173–1177 son of Bolesław III and Salomea
also Duke of Greater Poland
Casimir II the Just Piast High Duke 1177–1190 son of Bolesław III and Salomea
also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1190 restored
Casimir II the Just Piast High Duke 1190–1194 restored
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1194–1198 son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1198–1199 restored
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1199 restored
Mieszko III the Old Piast High Duke 1199–1202 restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks Piast High Duke 1202 son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1202–1210 restored
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Piast High Duke 1210–1211 son of Władysław (Ladislas) II and Agnes of Babenberg
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1211–1225 restored
Henryk I the Bearded Piast High Duke 1225 grandson of Władysław (Ladislas) II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the White Piast High Duke 1225–1227 restored
assassinated
Władysław III Spindleshanks Piast High Duke 1227–1229 restored
Konrad I of Masovia Piast High Duke 1229–1232 son of Kazimierz (Casimir) II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Masovia
Henryk I the Bearded Piast High Duke 1232–1238 restored
Henryk II the Pious Piast High Duke 1238–1241 son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
fell at Battle of Legnica
Bolesław II Rogatka Piast High Duke 1241 son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
also Duke of Silesia
Konrad I of Masovia Piast High Duke 1241–1243 restored
Bolesław V the Chaste Piast High Duke 1243–1279 son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck
Leszek II the Black Piast High Duke 1279–1288 paternal grandson of CI
maternal grandson of Henry II
son of Kazimierz (Casimir) I of Kujawia (Kuyavia) and Constance of Wrocław
Bolesław II of Masovia Piast High Duke 1288 grandson of Konrad of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Henryk IV Probus Piast High Duke 1288–1289 paternal grandson of Henryk II
maternal grandson of Konrad I
son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Bolesław II of Masovia Piast High Duke 1289 restored
Władysław I the Elbow-high Piast High Duke 1289 grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
son of Kazimierz (Casimir) I of Kujawia (Kuyavia) and Euphrosyne of Opole
Henryk IV Probus Piast High Duke 1289–1290 restored
Przemysł II Piast High Duke 1290–1291
King 1295–1296
grandson of Henryk II
son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
(Wacław II Czeski)
Přemyslid High Duke 1291–1300
King 1300–1305
son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
married Premyslas II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
also King of Bohemia
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
(Wacław III Czeski)
Přemyslid King 1305–1306 son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
uncrowned
assassinated
Władysław I the Elbow-high Piast High Duke 1306–1320
King 1320–1333
restored
re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Kazimierz (Casimir) III Wielki (the Great) Piast King 1333–1370 son of Władysław (Ladislas) IV/I and Jadwiga(Hedwig) of Kalisz
regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Louis I of Hungary
(Ludwik Węgierski)
Anjou King 1370–1382 son of Charles I of Hungary and Elisabeth of Poland
nephew of Kazimierz (Casimir) III
elected King and crowned on 17 November
also King of Hungary
Jadwiga of Poland Anjou King 1384–1399 daughter of Louis I and Elisabeth of Bosnia
crowned "king", 1384
reigned jointly with her husband
Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania

Jagiellonian Dynasty

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Jogaila)
Jagiellonian 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1377-1434
reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga till 1399
the longest-reigning king of Poland
Władysław III of Varna
(Władysław Warneńczyk, Vladislovas III)
Jagiellonian 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 son of Władysław II Jagiełło and Sophia of Halshany
also king of Hungary, as Ulászló I
fell at Battle of Varna, in Bulgaria, hence called "of Varna"
Casimir IV Jagiellon
(Kazimierz Jagiellończyk, Kazimieras Jogailaitis)
Jagiellonian 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1440–92
John I Albert
(Jan Olbracht, Jonas Albrechtas)
Jagiellonian 23 September 1492 16 June 1501 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Alexander I Jagiellon
(Aleksander, Aleksandras)
Jagiellonian 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Sigismund I the Old
(Zygmunt Stary, Žygimantas Senasis)
Jagiellonian 8 December 1506 1 April 1548 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund II Augustus
(Zygmunt August, Žygimantas Augustas)
Jagiellonian 1 April 1548 7 July 1572 son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569

Kings of Poland-Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Valois 21 February 1574 12 May 1575 son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Anna Jagiellonian King 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
Báthory 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned together with his wife Anna
regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Vasa 18 September 1587 19 April 1632 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599–1632
Władysław IV Vasa 8 November 1632 20 May 1648 son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610-1634, titular King of Sweden 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Vasa 20 November 1648 16 September 1668 son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
abdicated
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Wiśniowiecki 19 June 1669 10 November 1673 son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
Jan III
(John III)
Sobieski 21 May 1674 17 June 1696 son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Wettin 15 September 1697 16 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Stanisław I Leszczyński 4 October 1705 8 August 1709 son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Wettin 8 August 1709 1 February 1733 restored
Stanisław I Leszczyński 12 September 1733 30 June 1734 (deposed)
27 January 1736 (abdicates)
restored
defeated in War of the Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
Wettin 17 January 1734 (in opposition)
30 June 1734 (effectively)
5 October 1763 son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Stanisław II August Poniatowski 25 November 1764 7 January 1795 son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland

Kings and Tsars of the Kingdom of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Alexander I
(Aleksander I)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 9 June 1815 1 December 1825 The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Nicholas I
(Mikołaj I)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 December 1825 2 March 1855 deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during November Uprising (1830–1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Alexander II
(Aleksander II)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 2 March 1855 13 March 1881 The Kingdom of Poland annexed into the Russian Empire after January Uprising (1863–1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Vistula Land (1867–1915)
Alexander III
(Aleksander III)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 13 March 1881 1 November 1894
Nicholas II
(Mikołaj II)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 November 1894 15 March 1917 during World War I "Vistula Land" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Kings and Queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Maria Theresa
(Maria Teresa)
Habsburg 22 September 1772 29 November 1780 the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Joseph II
(Józef II)
Habsburg-Lorraine 29 November 1780 20 February 1790
Leopold II
(Leopold II)
Habsburg-Lorraine 20 February 1790 1 March 1792
Francis II
(Franciszek II)
Habsburg-Lorraine 1 March 1792 2 March 1835 the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he abdicated and the Empire was formally dissolved. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich)
Ferdinand I
(Ferdynand I)
Habsburg-Lorraine 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Francis Joseph I
(Franciszek Józef I)
Habsburg-Lorraine 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Charles I
(Karol I)
Habsburg-Lorraine 21 November 1916 11 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Frederick Augustus I
(Fryderyk August)
Wettin 9 July 1807 14 March 1813 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805–1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Dukes of Danzig (Gdańsk)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
François Joseph Lefebvre
(Franciszek Józef Lefebvre)
Lefebvre 9 September 1807 2 January 1814 Free City of Danzig, a semi-independent state established by Napoleon I in 1807, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and reincorporated into Prussia

Grand Dukes of Posen (Poznań)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Frederick William III
(Fryderyk Wilhelm III)
Hohenzollern 9 June 1815 7 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831.
Frederick William IV
(Fryderyk Wilhelm IV)
Hohenzollern 7 June 1840 2 January 1861 autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
William I
(Wilhelm I)
Hohenzollern 2 January 1861 9 March 1888 The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871–1918)
Frederick III
(Fryderyk III)
Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888
William II
(Wilhelm II)
Hohenzollern 15 June 1888 9 November 1918 abdicated in 1918

See also

External links

  • Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" Histmag.org June 14, 2009

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