DeJohnette in 2006
August 9, 1942 |
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Genres||Jazz, jazz fusion, new-age|
|Occupation(s)||Drummer, pianist, composer|
|Instruments||Drums, piano, percussion, melodica|
|Labels||Milestone, Prestige, ECM, MCA, Blue Note, Columbia|
|Associated acts||Miles Davis, Keith Jarrett, Joe Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Sonny Rollins, Charles Lloyd, Michael Brecker, McCoy Tyner, Pat Metheny, Herbie Hancock, Don Byron|
|Drums & piano|
An important figure of the fusion era of jazz, DeJohnette is one of the most influential jazz drummers of the 20th century, given his extensive work as leader and sideman for musicians including Freddie Hubbard, Keith Jarrett, John Abercrombie, Sonny Rollins, Miles Davis, Joe Henderson, and John Scofield. He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2007.
- Early life and musical beginnings 1.1
- The Miles Davis years 1.2
- DeJohnette as a solo artist and bandleader in the 1970s and '80s 1.3
- DeJohnette in the 1990s and the present 1.4
- Style 2
- Discography 3
- Awards 4
- Bibliography 5
- References 6
- External links 7
Early life and musical beginnings
DeJohnette was born in Chicago, Illinois. He began his musical career as a piano player, studying from age four and first playing professionally at age fourteen, but he would later switch focus to the drums, for which he is known. DeJohnette would later credit an uncle, Roy I. Wood Sr., as the person in his life who inspired him to play music. Wood was a Chicago disc jockey who would later become vice president of the National Network of Black Broadcasters.
DeJohnette began his musical career on piano, then adding drums and eventually focussing on the latter, playing R&B, hard bop, and avant-garde music in Chicago. He lead his own groups while playing in so-called loft concerts with Richard Abrams, Roscoe Mitchell and other eventual core members of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (founded in 1965). He also occasionally performed with Sun Ra and his Arkestra (and later in New York as well). In the early 1960s, DeJohnette had the opportunity to sit in for three tunes with John Coltrane and his quintet, an early foray into playing with big name jazz musicians.
In 1966 DeJohnette moved to New York City, where he became a member of the Charles Lloyd Quartet. A band that recognized the potential influence of rock and roll on jazz, Lloyd’s group was where DeJohnette first encountered pianist Keith Jarrett, who would work extensively with him throughout his career. However, DeJohnette left the group in early 1968, citing Lloyd’s deteriorating, “flat” playing as his main reason for leaving. While Lloyd’s band was where he received international recognition for the first time, it was not the only group DeJohnette played with during his early years in New York, as he also worked with groups including Jackie McLean, Abbey Lincoln, Betty Carter, and Bill Evans. DeJohnette joined Evan’s trio in 1968, the same year the group headlined the Montreux Jazz Festival and produced the album Bill Evans at the Montreux Jazz Festival. In November 1968 he worked briefly with Stan Getz and his quartet, which led to his first recordings with Miles Davis.
The Miles Davis years
In 1969, DeJohnette left the Evans trio and replaced Tony Williams in Miles Davis's live band. Davis had seen DeJohnette play many times, one of which was during a stint with Evans at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London in 1968, where he also first heard bassist Dave Holland. Davis recognized DeJohnette’s ability to combine the driving grooves associated with rock and roll with improvisational aspects associated with jazz.
DeJohnette is heard on the compilation album Directions, and was the primary drummer on the landmark album Bitches Brew. DeJohnette and the other musicians saw the Bitches Brew sessions as unstructured and fragmentary, but also innovative: "As the music was being played, as it was developing, Miles would get new ideas...He’d do a take, and stop, and then get an idea from what had just gone on before, and elaborate on it...The recording of Bitches Brew was a stream of creative musical energy. One thing was flowing into the next, and we were stopping and starting all the time." While he was not the only drummer involved in the project, as Davis had also enlisted Billy Cobham, Don Alias, and Lenny White, DeJohnette was considered the leader of the rhythm section within the group. He played on the live albums that would follow the release of Bitches Brew, taken from concerts at the Fillmore East in New York and Fillmore West in San Francisco. These ventures were undertaken at the behest of Clive Davis, then president of Columbia Records.
DeJohnette continued to work with Davis for the next three years, which led to collaborations with other Davis band members John McLaughlin, Chick Corea, and Holland; he also drew Keith Jarrett into the band. He contributed to such famous Davis albums as Live-Evil (1971), Jack Johnson (1971), and On the Corner (1972). He left the Davis group in the middle of 1971, although he returned for several concerts through the rest of that year.
DeJohnette as a solo artist and bandleader in the 1970s and '80s
DeJohnette had begun his career as a bandleader during his time in the Davis group. His first record, The DeJohnette Complex, was released in 1968; on the album, DeJohnette played melodica as well as drums, preferring often to let a mentor of his, Roy Haynes, sit behind the set. He also recorded, in the early 1970s, the albums Have You Heard, Sorcery, and Cosmic Chicken. He released these first four albums on either the Milestone or Prestige labels, and then switched to ECM for his next endeavors; ECM gave him a "fertile platform" for his “atmospheric drumming and challenging compositions.”
The musical freedom he had while recording for ECM offered DeJohnette many dates as a sideman and opportunities to start his own groups. He first formed the group Compost in 1972, but this was a short-lived endeavor, and DeJohnette cited the music as far too experimental to achieve commercial success. During this period, DeJohnette continued his career as a sideman as well, rejoining Stan Getz’s quartet from 1973 to October 1974, and also enticing Dave Holland to join Getz’s rhythm section. This stint briefly preceded the formation of the Gateway Trio, a group that DeJohnette helped form but did not lead. This group came directly out of the DeJohnette’s time with Getz, as Holland joined him in this group along with guitarist John Abercrombie, both of whom would become associated with DeJohnette throughout his career. His next group effort was Directions, a group formed in 1976 featuring saxophonist Alex Foster, bassist Mike Richmond, and Abercrombie, showing the links between the members of the Gateway trio. This was another short-lived group, yet it led directly to the formation of DeJohnette’s next group, New Directions, which featured Abercrombie again on guitar along with Lester Bowie on trumpet and Eddie Gómez on bass. This group coexisted with another DeJohnette group, Special Edition, which was the first DeJohnette-led group to receive critical acclaim. This group also helped the careers of many lesser-known young horn players, as it had a rotating front line that included David Murray, Arthur Blythe, Chico Freeman, John Purcell, and Rufus Reid, among many others.
During this period, especially with Special Edition, DeJohnette offered “the necessary gravity to keep the horns in a tight orbit” in his compositions while also treating his listeners to “the expanded vocabulary of the avant-garde plus the discipline of traditional jazz compositions.” DeJohnette’s work with Special Edition has been interrupted regularly by other projects, the most significant of which are his recordings in 1983 and tours from 1985 as a member of Keith Jarrett’s trio, which was totally devoted to playing jazz standards. The trio included his long-time compatriot Jarrett and bassist Gary Peacock, and all three have been members of the group for over 25 years.
DeJohnette in the 1990s and the present
DeJohnette continued to work with Special Edition into the 1990s, but did not limit himself to that. In 1990 he toured in a quartet consisting of himself, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, and his long-time collaborator Holland, and released the Parallel Realities CD with this group the same year. In 1992 he released a major collaborative record, Music for the Fifth World, which was inspired by studies with a Native American elder and brought him together musically with players like Vernon Reid and John Scofield. He had also, during the 1980s, resumed playing piano, which led to his 1994 tour as an unaccompanied pianist. He also began working again with Abercrombie and Holland, reviving the Gateway trio.
In 2004 he was nominated for a Jerome Harris on electric and acoustic bass guitars. In 2012, DeJohnette released Sound Travels, a multi-genre album that DeJohnette himself dominates but features many new collaborators like Bruce Hornsby, Esperanza Spalding, and Lionel Loueke as well as old faces such as McFerrin, Quintero, and Jason Moran. He was also, in 2012, awarded with an NEA Jazz Masters Fellowship for his "significant lifetime contributions have helped to enrich jazz and further the growth of the art form."
His drumming style has been called unique; one critic writes that he is not merely a drummer but a “percussionist, colourist and epigrammatic commentator mediating the shifting ensemble densities” and that “his drumming is always part of the music's internal construction.” Modern Drummer magazine, in a 2004 interview, called DeJohnette’s drumming “beyond technique.”
DeJohnette calls himself an “abstract thinker” when it comes to soloing, saying that he puts “more weight on the abstract than, ‘What were you thinking in bar 33?’ I don’t like to think that way. I can do it, but I like to be more in the flow.” In terms of what he feels when he plays, DeJohnette said that when he plays, he goes “into an altered state, a different headspace. I plug into my higher self, into the cosmic library of ideas.” He has remarked that he has to play with a lot of restraint when playing in Keith Jarrett's trio, in order “to play with the subtlety that the music requires.”
In 2012 DeJohnette was named a Fellow of United States Artists. In 2012 DeJohnette was named a Jazz Master by the National Endowment for the Arts.
- Barnhart, Stephen L. Percussionists: a Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
- Burgess, Marjorie. "Jack DeJohnette Biography", Musician Biographies (accessed April 23, 2012).
- Himes, Geoffrey. "Jack DeJohnette and Art Blakey", The Washington Post, June 3, 1983.
- Hovan, C. Andrew. "Live Reviews: Jack DeJohnette Latin Project", All About Jazz, February 19, 2005 (accessed April 24, 2012).
- Nicholson, Stuart. Jazz Rock: a History. New York: Schirmer Books, 1998.
- Porter, Lewis. "Jack DeJohnette". In Barry Kernfield, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, volume 1. New York: Grove, 2002.
- Tingen, Paul. Miles Beyond: the Electric Explorations of Miles Davis, 1967-1991. New York: Billboard Books, 2001.
- "Jack DeJohnette: Biography", Jack DeJohnette official website (accessed April 23, 2012).
- "Jack DeJohnette", Modern Drummer, May 12, 2004 (accessed April 23, 2012).
- "Sound Travels". Jack DeJohnette official website (accessed April 24, 2012).
- Stephen L. Barnhart, Percussionists: a Biographical Dictionary (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000), 88.
- Conversations with Jack DeJohnette, NYU Steinhardt Jazz Interview Series. Interview from January 31, 2015, led by David Schroeder. Around min 17:00.
- Lewis Porter, “Jack DeJohnette,” in Barry Kernfield, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, volume 1 (New York: Grove, 2002), 594.
- Stuart Nicholson, Jazz Rock: a History (New York: Schirmer Books, 1998), 77-78.
- Nicholson, Jazz Rock, 81.
- Paul Tingen, Miles Beyond: the Electric Explorations of Miles Davis, 1967-1991 (New York: Billboard Books, 2001), 51.
- Tingen, Miles Beyond, 55.
- Jack DeJohnette, quoted in Tingen, Miles Beyond, 65.
- Tingen, Miles Beyond, 65.
- Nicholson, Jazz Rock, 115.
- Barnhart, Percussionists, 89; Nicholson, Jazz Rock, 117.
- Official website
- Jack DeJohnette's MySpace page
- Official biography
- At drummerworld.com
- Jack DeJohnette at BehindTheDrums.com - discography and equipment list
- Jack DeJohnette page and discography
- Jack DeJohnette on ECM Records
- Photos of Jack DeJohnette in Salzburg
- Vic Firth page with four DeJohnette sample videos
- Jack DeJohnette interview at underyourskin on YouTube
- Jack de Johnette