Human body features; showing adult bodies whose body hair and male facial hair has been removed
The human body is the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cell.
At maturity, the estimated average number of cells in the body is given as 37.2
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- The dictionary definition of body at Wiktionary
- Human Physiology at Wikibooks
- Human Physiology textbook at Wikibooks
- The Book of Humans (from the early 18th century)
- Raincoast Books (2004). Encyclopedic Atlas Human Body. Raincoast Books.
- Daniel D. Chiras (1 June 2012). Human Body Systems: Structure, Function, and Environment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
- Adolf Faller; Michael Schünke; Gabriele Schünke; Ethan Taub, M.D. (2004). The Human Body: An Introduction to Structure and Function. Thieme.
- Richard Walker (30 March 2009). Human Body. Dk Pub.
- DK Publishing (18 June 2012). Human Body: A Visual Encyclopedia.
- DK Publishing (30 August 2010). The Complete Human Body: The Definitive Visual Guide.
- Saddleback (1 January 2008). Human Body. Saddleback Educational Publ.
- Babsky, Evgeni;
- Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). Human Physiology from cells to systems (Hardcover) (7 ed.).
Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos. It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks".
- Bianconi, E. Piovesin, A. et al. Annals of Human Biology 2013 Nov–Dec;40(6) 463-71 PMID 23829164
- http://www.human-body.org/ (dead link)
- "Introduction page, "Anatomy of the Human Body". Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918". Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "accessory muscle". Farlex. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- Anatomy of and Abnormalities Associated with Kager's Fat Pad, American Journal of Roentgenology
- Moore, Keith L., Dalley, Arthur F., Agur Anne M. R. (2010). Moore's Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Phildadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 2–3.
- "Cardiovascular System". U.S. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- Human Biology and Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 1993.
- "The Cardiovascular System". SUNY Downstate Medical Center. 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Tarikh llm Tashrih [An extensive Book in Urdu on History of anatomy] (1967), Tibbi Academy, Delhi, Second revised edition 2009 (ISBN 978-81-906070-), Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Aligarh
- "Physiology – History of physiology, Branches of physiology". www.Scienceclarified.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Fell, C.; Griffith Pearson, F. (November 2007). "Thoracic Surgery Clinics: Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy". Thorac Surg Clin 17 (4): 443–8, v.
- "Galen". Discoveriesinmedicine.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "De Humanis Corporis Fabrica"Page through a virtual copy of Vesalius's . Archive.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Andreas Vesalius (1514–1567)". Ingentaconnect.com. 1999-05-01. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Feder, Martin E. (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
In terms of the human body, the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to the interactions in the body.
The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.
In the 20th century, biologists also became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter Cannon (1871–1945).
In the 18th century, important works in this field were done by Pierre Cabanis, a French doctor and physiologist.
Following from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance brought an increase of physiological research in the Western world that triggered the modern study of anatomy and physiology. Andreas Vesalius was an author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Anatomist William Harvey described the circulatory system in the 17th century, demonstrating the fruitful combination of close observations and careful experiments to learn about the functions of the body, which was fundamental to the development of experimental physiology. Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as a father of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook Institutiones medicae (1708).
The study of human physiology dates back to at least 420 B.C. and the time of Hippocrates, the father of western medicine. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c. 126–199 A.D.), known as Galen, was the first to use experiments to probe the function of the body. Galen was the founder of experimental physiology. The medical world moved on from Galenism only with the appearance of Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey.
History of physiology
The animals and cadavers (corpses), to the development and use of the microscope, to the far more technological advances of the electron microscope and other complex techniques developed since the beginning of the 20th century. During the 19th and early 20th centuries it was the most prominent biological field of scientific study. 
History of anatomy
Because the structure of living organisms is complex, anatomy is organized by levels, from the smallest components of cells to the largest organs and their relationship to others.
Anatomy has become a key part of the visual arts. Basic concepts of how muscles and bones function and change with movement are vital in drawing, painting or animating a human figure. Many books (such as "Human Anatomy for Artists: The Elements of Form") have been written as guides to drawing the human body anatomically correctly. Leonardo da Vinci sought to improve his art through a better understanding of human anatomy. In the process he advanced both human anatomy and its representation in art.
Society and culture
Many interacting systems and mechanisms act to maintain the human's internal environment. The nervous system receives information from the body and transmits this to the brain via neurotransmitters. The endocrine system may release hormones to help regulate blood pressure and volume. Cell metabolism may help to maintain the blood's pH.
The term homeostasis refers to a system that regulates its internal environment and maintains a stable, relatively constant condition; such as maintaining an equal temperature, or acid balance pH. This is required for the body to function properly. Without a relatively constant pH, temperature, blood flow, and position, survival would be impossible.
|The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment.||neuroscience, neurology (disease), psychiatry (behavioral), ophthalmology (vision), otolaryngology (hearing, taste, smell)||neurophysiology|
|The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. This system can be split up into the muscular system and the skeletal system.||orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries)||cell physiology, musculoskeletal physiology, osteology (skeleton), arthrology (articular system), myology (muscular system)|
|The circulatory system or cardiovascular system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells, and signalling molecules (i.e., hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow.||cardiology (heart), hematology (blood)||cardiovascular physiology The heart itself is divided into three layers called the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium, which vary in thickness and function.|
|The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air.||pulmonology||respiratory physiology|
|The digestive system consists of the mouth including the tongue and teeth, esophagus, stomach, gut (gastrointestinal tract, small and large intestines, and rectum), as well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution by the circulation to all tissues of the body, and excretes the unused residue.||gastroenterology||gastrointestinal physiology|
|The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, but it also serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world.||dermatology||cell physiology, skin physiology|
|The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body.||nephrology (function), urology (structural disease)||renal physiology|
|The gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the infant.||gynecology (women), andrology (men), sexology (behavioral aspects) embryology (developmental aspects), obstetrics (partition)||reproductive physiology|
|The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are also part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from alien cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others.||immunology||immunology|
|The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid).||oncology, immunology||oncology, immunology|
|The hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function. There is also the exocrine system.||endocrinology||endocrinology|
The human body consists of many interacting systems. Each system contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. A system consists of two or more neuroendocrine system.
The study of how physiology is altered in disease is pathophysiology.
Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically related and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
In human surgeons or radiologists, in order to identify them. Unlike congenital anomalies, anatomic variations are typically inconsequential and do not constitute a disorder. Accessory muscles are rare anatomical duplicates of muscle that can occur and only require treatment where function is impaired. The accessory soleus muscle in the ankle is one such variation and one which does not need to be rectified. Another more common variation found in around ten per cent of the population is the accessory spleen.
 Human anatomy,
Generally, physicians, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience in examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (corpses). A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required for all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.
In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and which can be traced from the somitogenesis stage in very early embryos.
. medicine (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally taught together (or in tandem) to students studying biochemistry (the study of function), and human physiology, Anatomy  Human anatomy (gr. ἀνατομία, "dissection", from ἀνά, "up", and τέμνειν, "cut") is primarily the scientific study of the
The proportions of the elements of the body can be referred to in terms of the main elements, minor ones and trace elements. Material type may also be referred to as including water, protein, connective tissue, fats, carbohydrates and bone.
The vast majority of cells in the human body are not human at all; rather they are of human microbiome.
The composition of the human body can be referred to in terms of its water content, elements content, tissue types or material types. The adult human body contains approximately 60% water, and so makes up a significant proportion of the body, both in terms of weight and volume. Water content can vary from a high 75% in a newborn infant to a lower 45% in an obese person. (These figures are necessarily statistical averages).
The average adult body contains between 5 and 5½ litres of blood and approximately 10 litres of interstitial fluid.
Many other smaller cavities exist throughout the body called sinuses, which have varied functions. Sinuses in general usage refers to the paranasal sinuses which are involved in the condition sinusitis. The paranasal sinuses are four pairs of vital air-cavities in the cranial bones. These air-filled spaces are paired between the eyes, above the eyes, deeper behind the eyes and around the nasal cavity.
Skeletal structure frames the overall shape of the body and does not alter much over a lifetime. General body shape (and female body shape) is influenced by the distribution of muscle and fat tissue and is also affected by various hormones. The average height of an adult male human (in developed countries) is about 1.7–1.8 m (5'7" to 5'11") and the adult female is about 1.6–1.7 m (5'2" to 5'7") . Height is largely determined by genes and diet. Body type and composition are influenced by factors such as genetics, diet, and exercise.
- Composition 1.1
Human anatomy 1.2
- Anatomical variations 1.2.1
- Human physiology 1.3
- Systems 1.4
- Homeostasis 1.5
Society and culture 2
- Depiction 2.1
- Appearance 2.2
- History of anatomy 2.3
- History of physiology 2.4
- See also 3
- References 4
- Further reading 5
- External links 6
The study of the human body involves homeostasis.