History of the Jews in the Philippines
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- Spanish era 1
- American era 2
- Japanese invasion 3
- Recognition of independence up to the present 4
- See also 5
- References 6
- External links 7
History of Jews in the Philippines" by Bonnie M. Harris, Ph.D.
- Jewish Association of the Philippines
- Chabad Lubavitch in the Philippines
- A glimpse into the past: The Jewish community in the Philippines, photo exhibit
- http://www.anopendoormovie.com/#/a-preview/4559868994 Documentary Film by Sonny Izon, "An Open Door: Jewish Rescue in the Philippines"
- http://asianjewishlife.org/pages/articles/AJL_Issue_11_Jan2013/AJL_Feature_Manila_Memories.html Feature Article in Asian Jewish Life, "Manila Memories
- Carl Hoffman, The ties that bind: Filipinos and Jews, the Philippines and Israel, Jerusalem Post, April 11, 2007
- "Philippines Jewish Community". Jewishtimesasia.org. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Philippines". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1947-11-29. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "Jacques Lipetz". Remember.org. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "Proposed Hugo and Ilse Learmer Story". Monmouth.army.mil. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "Bonnie Harris" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- Harry O. Sandberg The Jews of Latin America
- "Global Nation | INQ7.net". Inquirer.net. March 8, 2005. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- Philippines story
- "Diplomats Who Saved Jews". Alpha-canada.org. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- Schlossberger, E. Cauliflower and Ketchup.
- Dumaual, Mario (May 12, 2015). "Mike Hanopol to become first Filipino rabbi".
As of 2011, Metro Manila has the largest Jewish community in the Philippines, which consists of roughly seventy families. The country's only synagogue, Beth Yaacov, is located in Makati City, as is the Chabad House. There are, of course, other Jews elsewhere in the country, like the Bagelboys of Subic and Angeles City but these are obviously fewer and almost all transients, either diplomats or business envoys, and their existence is almost totally unknown in mainstream society. There are a few Israelis in Manila working at call centers and a few other executives. There are also a number of converts to Judaism.
As of 2005, Filipino Jews numbered at the very most 500 people. Other estimates range between 100 and 500 people (0.000001% and 0.000005% of the country's total population).
But the destruction was so widespread that nearly all of the refugees and their American and British benefactors left the Philippines and the community membership had decreased by 30% by the end of 1946. Fewer than 250 European Jewish refugees could be counted among the estimated 600 Jews who remained in the Philippines by the end of 1948. By 1954 the Jewish community of Manila counted a total of 302 members. Thus closed the remarkable story of how one small American community of Jews in the Far East managed to do what so many more capable nations of the world were reluctant to do—save Jewish lives. By rescuing over 1300 Jewish refugees, this American Commonwealth saved them from the fate of the six million Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust.
After the liberation of the Philippines from Japanese occupation by the U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth Armed Forces, the freed internees of STIC joined with the remaining refugees in Manila to try to rebuild their devastated community. Temple Emil and Bachrach Hall had been totally destroyed. All had been victimized by the Japanese occupying forces, which resulted in the death of 70 members of the Jewish community. The American military took steps to assist the Jewish community in its recovery. U.S. and Filipino soldiers provided not only food, water, supplies, and medicine for the victims, but also donated $15,000 for the rebuilding of the synagogue.
Recognition of independence up to the present
While inmates at STIC battled malnutrition, disease, and exposure, residents of Manila tried to adapt to life under Japanese occupation. Houses and businesses were searched and seized without warning, providing lodging for the Japanese forces while making their owners jobless and homeless. Japanese penalties for violations of imposed civilian restrictions were both swift and brutal, administered through beatings, hangings, imprisonment, starvation, torture, and executions. In January 1943, anti-Semitic propaganda targeted the non-interned German Jews, as Japanese leaders began to be influenced by their Nazi allies. Rumors about forcing the German Jews into a ghetto began to circulate. This imminent danger to the German Jews was averted by the more influential leaders of the Jewish community, who negotiated with the Japanese leaders. While the Japanese could not be bothered with Nazi plans to establish a Jewish ghetto in the Philippines, they did not object to episodes of abuse randomly waged against members of the Jewish community by their own soldiers. Dozens of incidents of German Jews, along with other civilians suffering at the hands of the Japanese during these years of occupation, illustrate the horror of the time.
The Japanese did not perceive a difference between German nationals and German Jews so the majority of the Jewish Community at Manila, hundreds of German and Austrian Jews did not face internment at Santo Tomas University. However, about 250 other members of the Jewish community, including the more influential American members, were immediately incarcerated, as well as Americans of other faiths and "enemy alien" civilians. Having spent five years freeing hundreds of German Jews from Nazi oppression, the Manila American Jewish community now faced its own incarceration. Their fate was now in the hands of the German refugee Jews who aided their interned benefactors with food and supplies. Several firsthand accounts about the details of camp life have been written over the years, but few of them discuss specifics concerning the experiences of the Jews in camp. We can only assume that the general state of affairs at the camp pertained to all. The Japanese left the camp members to their own designs to solve their housing, food, and sanitation problems. Most prisoners were interned for the full three years until the end of the war in 1945.
The Jewish community of Manila reached its maximum population of about 2,500 members by the end of 1941, having increased eightfold since it first received refugees in 1937. This once American-dominated Jewish community that had saved the lives of well over 1300 European Jews from probable extermination in the Holocaust, faced an unexpected persecution of its own. An amazing turn of events put the fate of the American Jews into the hands of the German refugee Jews when the Japanese entered Manila in December 1941 and summarily interned all "enemy alien" civilians in University of Santo Tomas Internment Camp (STIC), and later at the Los Baños Internment Camp and the old Bilibid prison in Manila.
It is important to realize that the mechanics of the refugee rescue plan in Manila involved many different people and agencies in the Philippines, in the United States, and in Germany. While it was important to have the cooperation and consent of President Quezon in this refugee rescue plan, all issues of Philippine foreign affairs was still totally in the hands of the U.S. State Department and would be until the Philippines was granted independence in 1946. What is unique to the rescue of refugee Jews in the Philippines is that the Jewish Community in Manila was granted authority by High Commissioner Paul McNutt and Philippine President Quezon to operate a selection committee to choose those who would be granted visas by the U.S. State Department. By an application and review process, Jewish refugees in Germany and Austria obtained visas for immigration from U.S. consular officers who had been instructed by the U.S. State Department to issue visas based on recommendations from the JRC in Manila. This successful Frieder-McNutt selection rescue plan led to the larger resettlement rescue plan that focused on the island of Mindanao as a destination for the mass resettlement of 10,000 refugee Jews. For the refugees who did manage to settle in the Philippines, the JRC organised committees to aid in finding employment and new homes for them in Manila. Though relatively modest in numbers when compared to the number of refugees worldwide, the newly arrived refugees nearly overwhelmed the small Jewish community of Manila, multiplying its numbers relatively overnight. An ironic turn of events occurred when all rescue plans halted with the invasion and occupation of the Philippines during WWII.
Manila then received 30 German Jewish refugee families from Shanghai, which then started a larger program that would eventually rescue 1300 refugee Jews from Europe between 1937 and 1941, the largest influx of Jews in Philippine history.  in 1938.annexed Austria to Germany Adolf Hitler when , Austrian Jews were able to escape to other countries, including the Philippines,Austria-General in Consul, the Chinese Feng-Shan Ho These Jews had already been deprived of their German citizenship, and the Gestapo presence that was taking root in Japanese areas threatened Jewish existence in Shanghai as well. When the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937, the JRC received a telegram from Shanghai asking for assistance for Shanghai's refugee Jews. With the help of  It was during the era of the
Three important names appear in the Jewish community around the start of the 20th century: Frieders, the only services conducted on an annual basis were the High Holidays, when a visiting Rabbi or Cantor from Shanghai officiated the services. By 1936, the Jewish community in the Philippines had a distinctly cosmopolitan makeup with a total population of about 500 persons. The threat to European Jewry by the Nazi government in the 1930s sparked a renewed Jewish consciousness. The small, decentralized and secularly-minded Jewish Community of Manila took heroic steps to save fellow Jews from sure destruction, only becoming Jewish-conscious in a deep way when the Nazi threat came out of Europe, and there were thousands of Jews in desperate need of help.
When the Philippines became an American concern, American Jewish citizens took advantage of this new frontier. The arrival of American military forces to the Philippines brought Jewish servicemen who decided to remain in the islands after their military discharge and become permanent residents. Jewish teachers from the United States also arrived with a contingent of "Thomasites," a delegation of volunteer teachers, who gave public instruction to Filipino children. In addition to education, new markets for import-export businesses attracted young Jewish businessmen, who set up new shops in the Philippines or extended businesses from the U.S. mainland.
The first permanent settlement of Jews in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial years began with the arrival of three Levy brothers from Alsace-Lorraine, who were escaping the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. As entrepreneurs, their business ventures over the years included jewelry retail, a general merchandising business, and import trade in gems, pharmaceuticals, and eventually automobiles. Along with them was another notable Jew from the Alsace region, Leopold Kahn, who became President and General Manager of La Estrella del Norte and Levy Hermanos, Inc. Kahn also held positions such as the French Consul-General to the Philippines, and President of the French Chamber of Commerce. The opening of the Suez Canal in March 1869 provided a more direct trading route between Europe and the Philippines, allowing businesses to grow and the number of Jews in the Philippines to increase. The Levy brothers were subsequently joined by Turkish, Syrian, and Egyptian Jews, creating a multi-ethnic Jewish population of about fifty individuals by the end of the Spanish period. It was not until the Spanish–American War at the end of the 19th century, when the United States took control of the islands from Spain in 1898, that the Jewish community was allowed to officially organize and openly practice Judaism.
because the Inquisition did not have an independent tribunal in the Philippines. The Inquisition imprisoned the Rodríguez brothers and subsequently tried and convicted at least eight other "New Christians" from the Philippines. Such was the precarious status of Jewish settlers in the Philippines. Jewish presence during the subsequent centuries of Spanish colonization remained small and unorganized. Spanish Christianized laws would not have permitted the presence of an organized Jewish community. Mexico City in auto da fe arrived in the Spanish Philippines in the 1590s. By 1593 both were tried and convicted at an