Green sulfur bacteria

Green sulfur bacteria

Green sulfur bacteria
Green sulfur bacteria in a Winogradsky column
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Chlorobi

The green sulfur bacteria are a anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria. Most closely related to the distant Bacteroidetes, they are accordingly assigned their own phylum.[1]

Green sulfur bacteria are nonmotile (except Chloroherpeton thalassium, which may glide)[1] and occur in spheres, rods, and spirals. Photosynthesis is achieved using a Type 1[2] Reaction Centre using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and in chlorosomes which employ BChl c, d, or e; in addition chlorophyll a is also present,.[1] They use sulfide ions, hydrogen or ferrous iron as an electron donor and the process is mediated by the type I reaction centre and Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. Elemental sulfur deposited outside the cell may be further oxidized. By contrast, the photosynthesis in plants uses water as the electron donor and produces oxygen.[1]

ecology shared with the simpler cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus[1]

A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 m in the Pacific Ocean. At this depth, the bacterium, designated GSB1, lives off the dim glow of the thermal vent since no sunlight can penetrate to that depth.[3]

Green sulfur bacteria appear in Lake Matano, Indonesia, at a depth of about 110–120 m. The population may include the species Chlorobium ferrooxidans.[4]


  • Phylogeny 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) [5] [6] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 111 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [7]


Ignavibacterium album Iino et al. 2010

Melioribacter roseusPodosokorskaya et al. 2011


?Ancalochloris perfilieviiGorlenko and Lebedeva 1971

?Clathrochloris sulfuricaWitt et al. 1989

?Pelodictyon phaeum Gorlenko 1972

Chloroherpeton thalassium Gibson et al. 1985


?P. aphaeoasteroides

?P. indicaAnil 2005

P. aestuarii Gorlenko 1970 emend. Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

P. vibrioformis (Pelsh 1936) Imhoff 2003

Chlorobium chlorovibrioides(Gorlenko et al. 1974) Imhoff 2003


?C. limnaeum Imhoff 2003

?C. macestaeKeppen et al. 2008

?C. parvum Imhoff 2003

C. tepidum (Wahlund et al. 1996) Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

C. thiosulfatiphilum Imhoff 2003


?C. bathyomarinumBeatty et al. 2005

?C. chlorochromatiiVogl et al. 2006 (epibiont of the phototrophic consortium Chlorochromatium aggregatum)

?C. gokarnaAnil 2005

?C. ferrooxidans Heising et al. 1998 emend. Imhoff 2003

C. luteolum (Schmidle 1901) emend. Imhoff 2003

C. phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003

C. limicola Nadson 1906 emend. Imhoff 2003 (type sp.)

C. clathratiforme (Szafer 1911) emend. Imhoff 2003

C. phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968 emend. Imhoff 2003

♪ Prokaryotes where no pure (axenic) cultures are isolated or available, i. e. not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages
♦ Type strain lost or not available
♥ Strains not lodged at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e D.A. Bryant & N.-U. Frigaard; Frigaard (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and hototrophy illuminated". Trends Microbiol. 14 (11): 488–96.  
  2. ^ Green, Beverley R. (2003). Light-Harvesting Antennas in Photosynthesis. p. 8.  
  3. ^ Beatty JT, Overmann J, Lince MT, Manske AK, Lang AS, Blankenship RE, Van Dover CL, Martinson TA, Plumley FG.; Overmann; Lince; Manske; Lang; Blankenship; Van Dover; Martinson; Plumley (2005). "An obligately photosynthetic bacterial anaerobe from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent".  
  4. ^ Crowe, Sean; Jones, CarriAyne; Katsev, Sergei; O'Neill, AH; Sturm, A; Canfield, DE; Haffner, GD; et al. (2008). "Photoferrotrophs thrive in an Archean Ocean analogue".  
  5. ^ See the  
  6. ^ See the  
  7. ^ See the  

External links

  • "The Family Chlorobiaceae". The Prokaryotes. Retrieved July 5, 2005.