Gijon

Gijón / Xixón
Municipality

Top:Cimavilla Marina area, 2nd of left:Revillagigedo Palace, 2nd of right:View of Calle Palace and Bankunion area, Middle:view of Saint Lorenzo Beach and Cimavilla historian area, 4th of left:Gijon Laboral University, 4th of right: Night of San Pedro Church, Bottom of left:Gijon City Hall, Bottom of right:Playa de Poniente

Coat of arms

Location of Gijon
Gijón / Xixón
Gijón / Xixón
Location in Spain

Coordinates: 43°32′N 5°42′W / 43.533°N 5.700°W / 43.533; -5.700Coordinates: 43°32′N 5°42′W / 43.533°N 5.700°W / 43.533; -5.700

Country  Spain
Autonomous community  Asturias
Province Asturias
Comarca Gijón
Judicial district Gijón
Founded 5th century BC (Noega, the first settlement on record)
Government
 • Mayor Carmen Moriyón Entrialgo (2011) (FAC)
Area
 • Total 181.6 km2 (70.1 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)
Highest elevation 737 m (2,418 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 281,649
 • Density 1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Demonym Castillian: Gijonés/sa Asturian: Xixonés/sa
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 33201 -33212
Official language(s) Spanish Asturian
Website

Gijón ([xiˈxon]; Asturian: Xixón, ), officially Gijón / Xixón,[1] is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. Early medieval texts mention it as "Gigia".

Geography

The city is situated on the coast of central Asturias, from sea level to an altitude of 513 metres at Picu Samartín and 672 metres at Peña de los Cuatro Jueces, bordered on the West by Carreño, the East by Villaviciosa, and to the South by Siero and Llanera

The city is situated along the Asturian coast and is distinguished by the peninsula of Cimavilla (the original settlement) which separates the beach of San Lorenzo and adjacent neighborhoods to the east from the beaches of Poniente and Arbeyal, the shipyards, and the recreational port and the Port of El Musel to the west. It is close to the other main Asturian cities, Oviedo and Avilés.

Districts

Gijón is divided in six districts:[2] Centre, East, South, West, El Llano and Rural. In this last one, all the peri-urban zone and the rural parishes are integrated.

Neighbourhoods and parishes

Centre district
  • Centro
  • Cimavilla
  • Laviada
Eastern district
  • L'Arena
  • El Bibio
  • Ceares/Ciares
  • El Coto
  • Las Mestas
  • Viesques
El Llano district
  • El Llano
South district
  • Contrueces
  • Montevil
  • Nuevo Gijón
  • Perchera-La Braña
  • Polígono de Pumarín
  • Pumarín
  • Roces
  • Santa Bárbara
Western district
Rural district

Demography

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Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España - grafics for World Heritage Encyclopedia

Culture

  • During the early years of the 19th century the, then very small, town of Gijón was best known for its college or high-school known as the "Real Instituto Asturiano" founded by Jovellanos.[3]
  • The City Hall's sports and culture programs for citizens is wide, including the innovative Abierto Hasta el Amanecer (literally Open Till Dawn) nocturnal program, which tries to involve teens in cultural and sporting activities as an alternative to weekend nightlife.
  • Gijon has 13 libraries in its Cultural City Centers, which feature a wide network of swimming pools and gyms.



Museums and art galleries

  • Museum of the Asturian People
  • Railroad museum of Asturias
  • Nicanor Piñole museum
  • Roman Terms museum of Campo Valdés
  • Juan Barjola museum (A museum about a local painter, also interested in avant-garde art)
  • Evaristo Valle museum (Local painter museum placed in a mansion at the outskirts)
  • International Bagpipe Museum contains bagpipes from around the world, focusing on the Asturian musical heritage and bagpipes.
  • Atlantic botanical garden
  • Archaeological park Campa Torres.
  • Revillagigedo Palace and museum (At Marqués square, near the City Hall)
  • Gijón Aquarium
  • Roman Town of Veranes
  • LABoral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial (An exhibition centre for contemporary art, science, technology and advanced visual industries)

Universities

There are two universities located in Gijón, the University of Oviedo and the National University of Distance Education.

University of Oviedo

  • Polytechnic School of Engineering of Gijón.

Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronical Engineering, Computers and Systems Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Telecommunication Engineering.

  • School of Civil Navy.
  • Faculty of Commerce, Tourism and Social Sciences "Jovellanos".

Public Administration and Management, Trade and Marketing, Tourism and Social work.

National University of Distance Education (UNED)

Gijon also has a delegationof the UNED, where different disciplines can be studied by distance.

Sports

In team sports, Gijón's professional football team, Sporting de Gijón, plays in the Spanish Segunda División, with AB Gijón Jovellanos competing in Liga ASOBAL, one of the most important leagues of team handball in the world. In women's sport, Gijón Hockey Club is one of the most important rink hockey teams in Europe.

CSI Gijón is Spain's official show jumping horse show and it's held annually in Gijon's equestrian facility.

There is also a private sports club in Gijón with more than 33,000 members, Real Grupo de Cultura Covadonga, the biggest club in Asturias.

Not far from Gijón, there are several ski resorts in Asturias, the main being Valgrande-Pajares.

The city's marina houses an important fleet of yachts and is the base for many water sports, being Royal Astur Yacht Club the most important yacht club in town.

Sports centers

The biggest sport centers in Gijón are Estadio El Molinón, with 30,000 seats, Plaza de Toros de El Bibio with 12,000 and Palacio de Deportes with 5,000 seats.

The city has in total 13 public sport centers (in Spanish: Centros Municipales Integrados) with swimming pools, gyms and saunas. Swimming pools are free for children up to age 14.

Economy

For much of the twentieth century the town was heavily dependent on mature heavy industries, but at the end of the Franco era, tertiary sector employment began to expand rapidly along with the city's population which by 2007 stood officially at 277,897 for Gijón proper, and approximately 380,000 for the total Gijón agglomeration.

The port is at the centre of many of the local businesses. Apart from directly port related activities, the economy is based on tourism, steel (Arcelor), other metallurgy, livestock rearing and fisheries.

Climate

Gijón has a humid oceanic climate, with mild temperatures and high humidity throughout the year. The summers are warm, with both overcast and sunny days common, whilst winters are rainy but much milder than most places so far north; frosts are very rare and never severe.

Climate data for Gijón
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
13.8
(56.8)
14.9
(58.8)
15.6
(60.1)
17.8
(64)
20.2
(68.4)
22.4
(72.3)
23.2
(73.8)
21.8
(71.2)
19.0
(66.2)
15.6
(60.1)
14.0
(57.2)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
(48)
9.6
(49.3)
10.7
(51.3)
11.8
(53.2)
14.3
(57.7)
16.9
(62.4)
19.2
(66.6)
19.7
(67.5)
17.9
(64.2)
15.0
(59)
11.6
(52.9)
9.9
(49.8)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.4
(41.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.1
(46.6)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
16.2
(61.2)
14.1
(57.4)
11.0
(51.8)
7.6
(45.7)
5.8
(42.4)
10.0
(50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 94
(3.7)
85
(3.35)
74
(2.91)
93
(3.66)
79
(3.11)
47
(1.85)
45
(1.77)
54
(2.13)
70
(2.76)
104
(4.09)
120
(4.72)
104
(4.09)
971
(38.23)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 11 10 12 11 7 6 7 8 11 12 12 121
Mean monthly sunshine hours 103 109 137 151 167 180 194 190 158 132 106 92 1,721
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[4]

Transport

Airports

Gijón is served by Asturias Airport about 38 km (24 mi) from the centre of the city. It's located in the municipality of Castrillon. The airport is connected to the city by the A-8 motorway, the N-632 national highway and scheduled bus service (Alsa). It has regular flights to the following destinations: Barcelona, Brussels, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Gran Canaria, Ibiza, Lanzarote, Lisbon, London - Stansted, Madrid, Malaga, Palma de Mallorca, Paris - Charles de Gaulle, Seville, Tenerife-South and Valencia. Operating companies are: Air Berlin, Air France, Air Europa, Iberia, or Iberworld.

Seaport

The Port of Gijon, El Musel has a regular ferry line to the port of Nantes (Saint Nazaire) with a frequency of 3 weekly departures. Since mid-2012 there is expected to be two new regular lines, to Cork (Ireland) and a southern port of England alternating Portsmouth or Poole.

Public transport

Gijón currently has 21 bus lines, which are:

  • Line 1 BRT: Cerillero - Cabueñes Hospital
  • Line 2: El Corte Inglés - Cabueñes Hospital
  • Line 4: El Lauredal - Viesques - University campus
  • Line 6: Musel - Alcampo - Polígono de Porceyo - Polígono de Zarracina
  • Line 10: Pumarín - Candenal- Cabueñes Hospital
  • Line 12: Cerillero - Montevil - Contrueces
  • Line 14: Polígono de Somonte - Tremañes - Infanzón
  • Line 15: Nuevo Roces - Viesques - Cabueñes Hospital
  • Line 16: Estación Ferrocaril - Vega
  • Line 18: Nuevo Gijón - Cabueñes Hospital
  • Line 20: Montevil - Somió
  • Line 21: Jove Hospital - La Campa Torres
  • Line 24: Monteana - La Pedrera - Mareo
  • Line 25: Tremañes - Infanzón - La Olla
  • Line 26: Gijón - Deva
  • Line 28: Pza. del Humedal - El Molinón
  • Line 30: Pza. del Humedal - FIDMA (International trade fair of Asturias)
  • Line 34: Fomento - Musel
  • Line 54: Pza. del Humedal - Las Mestas (During the Davis Cup semi-final of Tennis)

Night bus service (Fridays and Saturdays only, every day 1 July to 31 August)

  • Line 41: El Cerillero - Pza. del Carmen (BUHO 1)
  • Line 42: Nuevo Roces - Pumarin - Pza. del Carmen (BUHO 2)
  • Line 43: Contrueces - Llano - Coto - Pza. del Carmen (BUHO 3)
  • Line 44: Vega - Viesques - Arena - Pza. del Carmen (BUHO 4)

Railway

The city is served by the Gijón Railway Station.

Roads and highways

Type Name Alternate name Itinerary
Highway A-8 Autovía del Cantábrico Baamonde - Gijón - Llanes - Torrelavega - Solares - Bilbao - San Sebastián
A-66 Autovía Ruta de la Plata Gijón - Oviedo - Mieres - León - Benavente - Zamora - Salamanca - Béjar - Plasencia - Mérida - Almendralejo - Sevilla
AS-I Autovía Minera Gijón - Pola de Siero - Langreo - Mieres
AS-II Autovía Industrial Gijón - Lugo de Llanera - Oviedo
GJ-10 Interior ring road Gijón seaport (El Musel) - Pumarín - El Llano
GJ-20 Western ring road GJ-81 (Autopista Acceso Sur a Gijón) - Tremañes - Gijón seaport (El Musel)
GJ-8 South access road (A-8/A-66) - Plaza del Humedal
National road N-630 Gijón - Oviedo - Mieres - Puerto de Pajares - León - Zamora - Salamanca - Plasencia - Mérida - Almendralejo - Sevilla
N-632 Cenero - Cudillero - Muros del Nalón - Soto del Barco - Avilés - Gijón - Villaviciosa - Colunga - Caravia - Ribadesella
N-641 El Musel access Road Gijón - La Calzada - Gijón seaport (El Musel) .
Regional and local roads AS-19 Gijón-Avilés Road Gijón - El Empalme - Prendes - Tabaza - Avilés
AS-246 Carbonera Road Gijón - Alto de la Madera - Noreña - El Berrón - La Gargantada - Langreo
AS-247 Piles to Infanzón Road Gijón - Somió - Alto del Infanzón
AS-248 Gijón-Siero Road Gijón - Vega de Poja - Pola de Siero
AS-266 Oviedo-Gijón Road Oviedo - Lugones - Pruvia - Porceyo - Gijón
AS-19a Gijón-Avilés Road Puenteseco - Muniello

Government

Since the Spanish transition to democracy, PSOE governed continuously during 32 years, from 1979 to 2011.

Since 11 June 2011, the city mayor is Carmen Moriyón of Asturias Forum, who was supported with the votes of the Popular Party.

Councillors distribution in local elections

Political party 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011
PSOE 13 17 11 12 12 16 13 13 10
FAC 9
AP / PP 1 7 7 9 11 9 11 12 5
IU 4 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 3
UCD / CDS 9 6
UGJ 3

Mayors in democracy

Name Start End Party
José Manuel Palacio 1979 1987 PSOE
Vicente Álvarez Areces 1987 1999 PSOE
Paz Fernández Felgueroso 1999 2011 PSOE
Carmen Moriyón 2011 FAC

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Gijón is twinned with:

References

External links

  • Gijon Municipality
  • Official Touristic website of Gijón
  • Non-official Website of Gijón Basket (professional basketball team)
  • Official Toponyms – At City Council official website.
  • BOPA Errata corrections)
  • Official site Sporting de Gijon
  • LABoral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial