Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Spain)

a">Irmandades da Fala ("Brotherhood of the Language") and Grupo Nós included such writers as Vicente Risco, Ramón Cabanillas and Castelao. Public use of Galician was largely suppressed during the Franco dictatorship but has been resurgent since the restoration of democracy. Contemporary writers in Galician include Xosé Luís Méndez Ferrín, Manuel Rivas, Chus Pato, and Suso de Toro.

Public holidays

Festivals

Entroido: Peliqueiros in Laza, allegedly dressed as 16th century Castilian tax collectors
  • Entroido, or Carnival, is a traditional celebration in Galicia, historically disliked and even forbidden by the Catholic Church. Famous celebrations are held in Laza, Verín, and Xinzo de Limia.
  • Festa do Corpus Christi in Ponteareas, has been observed since 1857 on the weekend following Corpus Christi (a movable feast) and is known for its floral carpets. It was declared a Festival of Tourist Interest in 1968 and a Festival of National Tourist Interest in 1980.
  • Feira Franca, first weekend of September, in Pontevedra recreates an open market that first occurred in 1467. The fair commemorates the height of Pontevedra's prosperity in the 15th and 16th centuries, through historical recreation, theater, animation, and demonstration of artistic activities. Held annually since 2000.
  • Arde Lucus, in June, celebrates the Celtic and Roman history of the city of Lugo, with recreations of a Celtic weddings, Roman circus, etc.
  • Bonfires of Saint John, Noite de San Xoan or Noite da Queima is widely spread in all Galician territory, celebrated as a welcome to the summer solstice since the Celtic period, and Christianized in Saint John's day eve. Bonfires are believed to make meigas, witches, to flee. They are particularly relevant in the city of Corunna, where it became Fiesta of National Tourist Interest of Spain. The whole city participate on making great bonfires in each district, whereas the centre of the party is located in the beaches of Riazor and Orzan, in the very city heart, where hundreds of bonfires of different sizes are lighted. Also, grilled sardines are very typical.
  • Rapa das Bestas ("shearing of the beasts") in Sabucedo, the first weekend in July, is the most famous of a number of rapas in Galicia and was declared a Festival of National Tourist Interest in 1963. Wild colts are driven down from the mountains and brought to a closed area known as a curro, where their manes are cut and the animals are marked, and assisted after a long winter in the hills. In Sabucedo, unlike in other rapas, the aloitadores ("fighters") each take on their task with no assistance.
  • Festival de Ortigueira (Ortigueira's Festival of Celtic World) lasts four days in July, in Ortigueira. First celebrated 1978–1987 and revived in 1995, the festival is based in Celtic culture, folk music, and the encounter of different peoples throughout Spain and the world. Attended by over 100,000 people, it is considered a Festival of National Tourist Interest.
  • Festa da Dorna, 24 July, in Ribeira. Founded 1948, declared a Galician Festival of Tourist Interest in 2005. Originally founded as a joke by a group of friends, it includes the Gran Prix de Carrilanas, a regatta of hand-made boats; the Icarus Prize for Unmotorized Flight; and a musical competition, the Canción de Tasca.
Jumping over the fire, Noite de San Xoán
  • Festas do Apóstolo Santiago (Festas of the Apostle James): the events in honor of the patron saint of Galicia last for half a month. The religious celebrations take place 24 July. Celebrants set off fireworks, including a pyrotechnic castle in the form of the façade of the cathedral.
  • Romería Vikinga de Catoira ("Viking Pilgrimage of Catoira"), first Sunday in August, is a secular festival that has occurred since 1960 and was declared a Festival of International Tourist Interest in 2002. It commemorates the historic defense of Galicia and the treasures of Santiago de Compostela from Norman and Saracen pirate attacks.
  • Festas da Peregrina, 2nd week of August, celebrating the Pilgrim Virgin of Pontevedra.
  • Festa de San Froilán, 4–12 October, celebrating the patron saint of the city of Lugo. A Festival of National Tourist Interest, the festival was attended by 1,035,000 people in 2008.[69] It is most famous for the booths serving polbo á feira, an octopus dish.
  • Festa do marisco (Seafood festival), October, in O Grove. Established 1963; declared a Festival of National Tourist Interest in the 1980s.
  • Bullfighting in Pontevedra the only city where there is a permanent bullring and a big tradition during the aforementioned Peregrina fiesta.

In 2009 only 8 corridas, out of the 1,848 held throughout Spain, took place within Galicia. In addition, recent studies have stated that 92% of Galicians are firmly against bullfighting, the highest rate in Spain, even more than Catalonia. Despite this, popular associations, such as Galicia Mellor Sen Touradas ("Galicia Better without Bullfights"), have blamed politicians for having no compromise in order to abolish it and have been very critical of local councils', especially those governed by the PP and PSOE, payment of subsidies for corridas.

Media

Television

Televisión de Galicia (TVG) is the autonomous community's public channel, which has broadcast since 24 July 1985 and is part of the Compañía de Radio-Televisión de Galicia (CRTVG). TVG broadcasts throughout Galicia and has two international channels, Galicia Televisión Europa and Galicia Televisión América, available throughout the European Union and the Americas through Hispasat. CRTVG also broadcasts a digital terrestrial television (DTT) channel known as tvG2 and is considering adding further DTT channels, with a 24-hour news channel projected for 2010.

Radio

Radio Galega (RG) is the autonomous community's public radio station and is part of CRTVG. Radio Galega began broadcasting 24 February 1985, with regular programming starting 29 March 1985. There are two regular broadcast channels: Radio Galega and Radio Galega Música. In addition, there is a DTT and internet channel, Son Galicia Radio, dedicated specifically to Galician music.

Galicia has several free and community radiostations. Cuac FM is the headquarters of the Community Media Network (which brings together media non-profit oriented and serve their community). CUAC FM (A Coruña), Radio Filispim (Ferrol), Radio Roncudo (corme), Kalimera Radio (Santiago de Compostela), Radio Piratona (Vigo) and Radio Clavi (Lugo) are part of the Galician Network of Free and Association of Community Radio Broadcasters(ReGaRLiC)

Press

The most widely distributed newspaper in Galicia is La Voz de Galicia, with 12 local editions and a national edition. Other major newspapers are El Correo Gallego (Santiago de Compostela), Faro de Vigo (Vigo), Diario de Pontevedra, El Progreso (Lugo), La Región (Ourense), and Galicia Hoxe – The first daily newspaper to publish exclusively in Galician. Other newspapers of note are Atlántico Diario in the Vigo city, the free De luns a venres (the first free daily in Galician), the sports paper DxT Campeón, El Ideal Gallego from A Coruña, the Heraldo de Vivero, the Xornal de Galicia, and the Diario de Ferrol.

Sport

Deportivo played in UEFA Cup in the 2008–2009 season

Galicia has a long sporting tradition dating back to the early 20th century, when the majority of sports clubs in Spain were founded. The most popular and well-supported teams in the region, Celta Vigo and Deportivo La Coruña, both compete in Spain's top division, La Liga. When the two sides play, it is referred to as the Galician derby. SD Compostela from Santiago de Compostela and Racing Ferrol from Ferrol are two other notable club sides, now the third team is CD Lugo currently in the second division of the La Liga (Liga Adelante). Similarly to Catalonia and the Basque Country, the Galician Football Federation also periodically fields a regional team against international opposition. The Galician NT has a huge popular support in the region.

Football aside, the most popular team sports in Galicia are futsal, handball and basketball. In basketball, Obradoiro CAB is the most successful team of note, and currently the only Galician team that plays in the Liga ACB; other teams are CB Breogan, Club Ourense Baloncesto and OAR Ferrol. In the sport of handball, Club Balonmán Cangas plays in the top-flight (Liga ASOBAL). The sport is particularly popular in the province of Pontevedra with the three other Galician teams in the top two divisions: SD Teucro (Pontevedra), Octavio Pilotes Posada (Vigo) and SD Chapela (Redondela).

In roller hockey HC Liceo is the most successful Galician team, in any sport, with numerous European and World titles. In futsal teams, Lobelle Santiago and Azkar Lugo.

Galicia is also known for its tradition of water sports, both at sea and in rivers, sush as rowing, yachting, canoeing and surfing, in which sports is a regular winner of metals in the Olympics, currently the most example is David Cal, Carlos Pérez Rial and Fernando Echavarri. In the field water sport Galician par excellence are the trainer, counting Galicia with representatives in the League of San Miguel trawlers.

In recent years comes from Galicia also become a power in any triathlon in the hands of Francisco Javier Gómez Noya and Iván Raña, both world champions, and Noia being one of the best athletes in the history of the specialty. In 2006 the cyclist, other Galician athlete, Oscar Pereiro, won the Tour de France after the disqualification of American Floyd Landis, snatching him the top spot on the penultimate day. Galicians are also prominent athletes in sports such as mountaineering, where stands the Chus Lago, the third woman to reach the summit of Everest without the aid of oxygen, and it also has the title of Snow Leopard.

Emerging sports

Since 2011, several Gaelic football teams have been set up in Galicia. The first was Fillos de Breogán (A Coruña), followed Artabros (Oleiros), Irmandinhos (A Estrada), SDG Corvos (Pontevedra), and Suebia (Santiago de Compostela) with talk of creating a Galician league.[70] Galicia also fielded a Gaelic football side (recognised as national by the GAA) that beat Britanny in July 2012 and was reported in the Spanish nationwide press.[71]

Salvador, Brazil have also formed Galicia Rugby, a sister team of the local football club.

Symbols

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Galicia (L'armorial Le Blancq, c. 1560 AD).

A golden chalice enclosed in a field of azure has been the symbol of Galicia since the 13th century. Originated as a Canting arms due to the phonetic similarity between the words "chalice" and Galyce ("Galicia" in old Norman language), the first documentated mention of this emblem is on the Segar's Roll, an English medieval roll of arms where are represented all the Christian kingdoms of 13th century´s Europe. In following centuries, the Galician emblem was variating; diverse shapes and number of chalices (initially three y later one or five), wouldn´t be until the 16th century that its number was fixed finally as one single chalice. Centuries after, a field of crosses was slowly added to the azure background, and latterly also a silver host. Since then basically the emblem of the kingdom would be kept until nowadays.

The ancient flag of Galicia (then kingdom) was based mainly on its coat of arms until the 19th century. However when in 1833 the Government of Spain decided to abolish the kingdom and divided it in four provinces, the Galician emblem as well as flag, lost its legal status and international validity. It wouldn't be until the late 19th century that some Galician intellectuals (nationalist politicians and writers) began to use a new flag as symbol a renewed national unity for Galicia. That flag, what was composed by a diagonal stripe over a white background, was designated "official flag of Galicia" in 1984, after the fall of the Franco's dictatorship. In addition, the Royal Academy of Galicia asked the Galician Government to incorporate the ancient coat of arms of the kingdom onto the modern flag, being present in it since then.

In addition of coat of arms and flag, Galicia also has an own anthem. While it is true that the kingdom of Galicia had during centuries a kind of unofficial anthem known as the "Solemn March of the kingdom", the Galician current anthem was not created until 1907, although its composition had begun already in 1880. Titled "Os Pinos" ("The Pines"), the Galician anthem lyrics was written by Eduardo Pondal, one the greatest modern Galician poets, and its music was composed by Pascual Veiga. Performed for the first time in 1907 in Havana (Cuba) by Galician emigrants, the anthem was banned since 1927 by diverse Spanish Governments until 1977, when it was officially established by the Galician authorities.

Sights

Galicians

Honour

Galicia Peak in Vinson Massif, Antarctica is named after the autonomous community of Galicia.[72]

See also

References

This article incorporates information from the
This article incorporates information from the
  • Bell, Aubrey F. B. (1922). Spanish Galicia. London: John Lane The Bodley Head Ltd.
  • Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia. The Switzerland of Spain. London: Methuen & Co.

Notes

  1. ^ "Galicia, a historic nationality, constitutes itself as an autonomous community for accessing to its self-government", "Galicia, nacionalidade histórica, constitúese en Comunidade Autónoma para acceder ó seu autogoberno" Statute of Autonomy of Galicia (1981), 1.
  2. ^ "Instituto Galego de Estatística". Instituto Galego de Estatística. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  3. ^ "Límites e posición xeográfica". Instituto Galego de Estatística. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  4. ^ Rodríguez Fernández, Justiniano (1997). García I, Ordoño II, Fruela II, Alfonso IV. Burgos: Editorial La Olmeda.  
  5. ^ a b de Artaza, Manuel Ma. (1998). Rey, reino y representación : la Junta General del Reino de Galicia (1599–1834). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.  
  6. ^ a b "Instituto Nacional de Estadística". Ine.es. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  7. ^ INE 2013
  8. ^ Instituto Galego de Estatística (source is in Galician)
  9. ^ a b Moralejo, Juan J. (2008). Callaica nomina : estudios de onomástica gallega. A Coruña: Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza. pp. 113–148.  
  10. ^ Luján, Eugenio R. (2000): "Ptolemy's 'Callaecia' and the language(s) of the 'Callaeci', in Ptolemy: towards a linguistic atlas of the earliest Celtic place-names of Europe : papers from a workshop sponsored by the British Academy, Dept. of Welsh, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, 11–12 April 1999, pp. 55-72. Parsons and Patrick Sims-Williams editors.
  11. ^ Paredes, Xoán (2000): "Curiosities across the Atlantic: a brief summary of some of the Irish-Galician classical folkloric similarities nowadays. Galician singularities for the Irish", in Chimera, Dept. of Geography, University College Cork, Ireland
  12. ^ Curchin, Leonard A. (2008) The toponyms of the Roman Galicia: New StudyEstudios Gallegos. CUADERNOS DE ESTUDIOS GALLEGOS LV (121): 111.
  13. ^ Fraga, Xesús (8 June 2008). "La Academia contesta a la Xunta que el único topónimo oficial es Galicia" [The Academy responds to the Xunta saying that the only official toponym is Galicia].  
  14. ^ Antonio de la Peña Santos, Los orígenes del asentamiento humano, (chapters 1 and 2 of the book Historia de Pontevedra A Coruña:Editorial Vía Láctea, 1996. p. 23.
  15. ^ de la Peña García, Antonio (2001). Petroglifos de Galicia. Perillo-Oleiros (A Coruña): Vía Láctea.  
  16. ^ Parcero-Oubiña C. and Cobas-Fernández, I (2004). Iron Age Archaeology of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. In e-Keltoi, Volume 6: 1-72. UW System Board of Regents, 2004. ISSN 1540-4889.
  17. ^ History of Rome: the Spanish Wars, 72-73.
  18. ^ Livy lv., lvi., Epitome
  19. ^ 'Formula Vitae Honestae''"'". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  20. ^ Cf. Carballeira Debasa, Ana María (2007). Galicia y los gallegos en las fuentes árabes medievales. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientifícas. ISBN 978-84-00-08576-6.
  21. ^ Alfonso II of Asturias was addressed as: "DCCXCVIII. Venit etiam et legatus Hadefonsi regis Galleciae et Asturiae, nomine Froia, papilionem mirae pulchritudinis praesentans. (...) Hadefonsus rex Galleciae et Asturiae praedata Olisipona ultima Hispaniae civitate insignia victoriae suae loricas, mulos captivosque Mauros domno regi per legatos suos Froiam et Basiliscum hiemis tempore misit.” (ANNALES REGNI FRANCORUM); “Hadefuns rex Gallaeciae Carolo prius munera pretiosa itemque manubias suas pro munere misit.” (CODEX AUGIENSIS); "Galleciarum princeps" (VITA LUDOVICI) Cf. López Carreira, Anselmo (2005): O Reino medieval de Galicia. A Nosa Terra, Vigo. ISBN 978-84-8341-293-0 pp. 211–248.
  22. ^ Eduardo Loureiro. "Viking Festival webpage". Catoira.net. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  23. ^ Mariño Paz, Ramón (1998). Historia da lingua galega (2. ed. ed.). Santiago de Compostela: Sotelo Blanco. p. 195.  
  24. ^ Rubio Martínez, Amparo (2010). "LOS INGRESOS EXTRAORDINARIOS DEL REINO DE GALICIA EN EL SIGLO XV". Cuadernos de Estudios Gallegos LVII (126): 268. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  25. ^ Martínez Crespo, José (2007). A guerra na Galicia do antigo rexime. Noia: Toxosoutos. pp. 302–319.  
  26. ^ de Artaza, Manuel M. (1998). Rey, reino y representación: la Junta General del Reino de Galicia (1599–1834). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. pp. 231–325.  
  27. ^ de Artaza, Manuel M. (1998). Rey, reino y representación : la Junta General del Reino de Galicia (1599–1834). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. pp. 325–345.  
  28. ^ "Proposición no de ley del PSdeG-PSOE en el Parlamento de Galicia sobre Memoria Histórica" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  29. ^ Ernesto S. Pombo, El último guerrillero antifranquista, El País, 1986-03-10. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  30. ^ Carlos Fernández, La cárcel acogió a huéspedes históricos, La Voz de Galicia, 2005-10-20. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  31. ^ María José Portero, Las huelgas más importantes, El País, 1984-03-04. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  32. ^ Muere en Ourense a los 87 años el obispo emérito de Mondoñedo Miguel Anxo Araújo, La Región 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  33. ^ a b c d e Galicia 08, Xunta de Galicia, Consellaría de Cultura e Deporte.
  34. ^ Rías Baixas Naturaleza, riasbaixas.depo.es, Rías Baixas Turismo (brochure).
  35. ^ La Xunta elabora un inventario de islas para su posible compra. FaroDeVigo.es. Retrieved 2009-01-22.
  36. ^ Santa Maria, Inés Santa Maria (2009). Atlas Xeográfico e Histórico de Galicia e do Mundo (1. ed. ed.). Vilaboa: Do Cumio. p. 62.  
  37. ^ Paula Pérez, El desorden de los bosques, FaroDeVigo.es. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
  38. ^ Enciclopedia Galega Universal (online version)
  39. ^ La 'galiña de Mos' aumenta su censo de 100 a 5.500 ejemplares en siete años, aunque sigue en peligro de extinción, www.europapress.es, 2008-06-21.
  40. ^ Santa Maria, Inés; Noé Massó (2009). Atlas Xeográfico e Histórico de Galicia e do Mundo (1 ed.). Vilaboa: Do Cumio. pp. 55–66.  
  41. ^ years 2006–2010, cf. the official meteorological agency Meteogalicia.
  42. ^ Cf. Meteogalicia
  43. ^ From AEME. For 1970–2000: AEMet.
  44. ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia. Título I: Del Poder Gallego". Xunta.es. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  45. ^ "Parlamento de Galicia – By Party". Parlamento de Galicia. Retrieved 27 November 2006. Parliament of Galicia Composition 
  46. ^ The seven silver crosses on the coat of arms of Galicia refer to these seven historic provinces.
  47. ^ Manuel Bragado, «Microtoponimia», Xornal de Galicia, 2005-09-05. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  48. ^ Centro Vigo de PSA produjo 455.430 vehículos en 2006, el 7% más 2006-12-21. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  49. ^ Nueve millones de coches `made in´ Vigo, FaroDeVigo.es, 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  50. ^ Zara, la marca española más conocida en el exterior
  51. ^ Inditex gana un 25% más y aumentará un 15% la superficie disponible hasta 2010, www.cincodias.com, 2008-03-31.
  52. ^ Amancio Ortega se refuerza en Acerinox y BBVA; entra en Iberdrola e Inbesós, Cotizalia.com, 2007-05-30.
  53. ^ "Map: European Billionaires". Forbes. 2013-02-04. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  54. ^ a b c Galicia recibió un 8% más de turistas durante el 2007
  55. ^ El Barrio Marinero, www.galiciaparaelmundo.com.
  56. ^ Antoinio Figueras, ¡Y aún dicen que el pescado es caro!, weblogs.madrimasd.org/ciencia_marina
  57. ^ a b As lucenses son as que menos fillos teñen en España, Galicia-Hoxe.com.
  58. ^ Aumentan los nacimientos en Galicia, pero el saldo vegetativo sigue negativo, www.galiciae.com, 2005-05-28.
  59. ^ Carlos Punzón, La esperanza de vida se incrementó en Galicia en cinco años desde 1981, LaVozDeGalicia.es, 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  60. ^ Indicadores demográficos básicos, INE
  61. ^ "Gallegos" (in Spanish).  
  62. ^ Población por nacionalidad, comunidades y provincias, sexo y edad, INE
  63. ^ Fernández Rei, Francisco (2003), Dialectoloxía da lingua galega (3 ed.), Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia, p. 17,  
  64. ^ a b Galician), Ethnologue. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
  65. ^ a b Plano Xeral de Normalización da lingua galega, Xunta de Galicia. (In Galician.) p. 38.
  66. ^ O Foro do bo burgo do Castro Caldelas, dado por Afonso IX in 1228, Consello da Cultura Galega. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
  67. ^ Denominaciones de Origen y Indicaciones Geográficas, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Select "Galicia" in the dropdown. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
  68. ^ "Los Limones del Caribe". Maketon.com. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  69. ^ "O San Froilán atraeu a Lugo a máis dun millón de persoas". Elprogreso.galiciae.com. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  70. ^ Faro de Vigo, 24 October 2012)
  71. ^ "Galicia juega al fútbol irlandés | Galicia | EL PAÍS". Ccaa.elpais.com. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  72. ^ Galicia Peak. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.

External links

  • Irish genes from Galicia
  • Walking the Camino de Santiago, A Guide The end of the Camino at Santiago and also Cape Finisterre
  • Galicia's National Tourism Board
  • Photographs of Galicia
  • Rural tourism in Galicia
  • Photograph of forest fire in Galicia
  • Landscape photographs of Galicia