12th-century depiction, Georgian National Museum
|Archangel, Angel of Revelation|
|Venerated in||Anglican Communion, Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Oriental Orthodoxy, Islam|
September 29 with Saints Michael and Raphael
Eastern Orthodox Church: November 8
|Attributes||Archangel; Clothed in blue or white garments; Carrying a lily, a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise, a scroll, and a scepter.|
|Patronage||Telecommunication Workers, Radio Broadcasters, Messengers, Postal Workers, Clerics, Diplomats, Stamp Collectors, Portugal, ambassadors|
In the Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל, Modern Gavri'el, Tiberian Gaḇrîʼēl, God is my strength; Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl; Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ, Gabriēl) is an angel who typically serves as a messenger sent from God to certain people.
In the Bible, Gabriel is mentioned in both the Old and New Testaments. In the Old Testament, he appeared to the prophet Daniel, delivering explanations of Daniel's visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). In the Gospel of Luke, Gabriel appeared to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38). In the Book of Daniel, he is referred to as "the man Gabriel", while in the Gospel of Luke, Gabriel is referred to as "an angel of the Lord" (Luke 1:11). Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible, but is so called in Intertestamental period sources like the Book of Enoch. In the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the archangels Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel are also referred to as saints.
In Islam, Gabriel (Jibra'il) is considered one of the four archangels whom God sent with his divine message to various prophets, including Muhammad. The 96th chapter of the Quran, sura Al-Alaq, is believed by Muslims to be the first surah revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.
- Judaism 1
- Intertestamental literature 2
- New Testament 3.1
- Gabriel's horn 3.2
- Feast days 3.3
- Latter-day Saint teachings 3.4
- Islam 4
- Baha'i Faith 5
Art, entertainment, and media 6
- Festivals 6.1
- Film 6.2
- Games 6.3
- Literature 6.4
- Music 6.5
- Visual art 6.6
- Television 6.7
- See also 7
- Notes 8
- References 9
- External links 10
Gabriel is interpreted by the Rabbanim to be the "man in linen" in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Ezekiel. In the Book of Daniel, he is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature. In the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel that was sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, and stands at the left hand of God. Shimon ben Lakish (Syria Palaestina, 3rd century) concluded that the angelic names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile (Gen. Rab. 48:9).
In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirot of Yesod. Gabriel also has a prominent role as one of God's archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of God's court. Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God can answer prayers and sends Gabriel as his agent.
According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls" that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls. Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born.
The intertestamental period (roughly 200 BCE – 50 CE) produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were greatly expanded, and each had particular duties and status before God.
In 1 Enoch 9:1–3, Gabriel, along with Michael, Uriel and Suriel, "saw much blood being shed upon the earth" (9:1) and heard the souls of men cry, "Bring our cause before the Most High." (9:3) In 1 Enoch 10:1, the reply came from "the Most High, the Holy and Great One" who sent forth agents, including Gabriel—
And the Lord said to Gabriel: "'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have." —1 Enoch 10:9
Gabriel is fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim." (1 Enoch 20:7)
When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days." (Enoch 40:9)
First, concerning John the Baptist, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias, a priest of the course of Abia, (Luke 1:5-7) whose "barren" wife Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron, while he ministered in the temple:
Luke 1:10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’s womb.
16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
(Luke 1:10-20 KJV) (other versions: Luke 1:1-25)
After completing his week of ministry, Zacharias returned to his house (in Hebron) and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" (Luke 1:21-25) of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again:
Luke 1:26 ¶ And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.
(Luke 1:26-38 KJV) (other versions: Luke 1:26-38)
Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke. In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Michael the Archangel (in Jude 1:9) and Abaddon (in Revelation 9:11) . Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels (in Colossians 2:18-19 and Revelation 19:10).
The trope of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is especially familiar in Negro spirituals. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages say different things: the angels of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:31); the voice of the Son of God (John 5:25-29); God's trumpet (I Thessalonians 4:16); seven angels sounding a series of blasts (Revelation 8-11); or simply "a trumpet will sound" (I Corinthians 15:52).
In related traditions, Gabriel is again not identified as the trumpeter. In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, but they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael. In Zoroastrianism, there is no trumpeter at the last judgement. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an. The Christian Church Fathers do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not.
The earliest known identification of Gabriel as the trumpeter comes in the year 1455 in Byzantine art, as an illustration in an Armenian manuscript showing Gabriel sounding his trumpet as the dead climb out of their graves. Two centuries later comes the first known appearance of Gabriel as the trumpeter in English culture, in John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667):
Betwixt these rockie pillars Gabriel sat
Chief of the Angelic guards (IV.545f)...
He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd, he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. (XI.72ff).
Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source.
Gabriel's horn also makes an appearance in The Eyes of Texas (1903) where it signifies the rapture.
In Marc Connelly's play based on spirituals, The Green Pastures (1930), Gabriel has his beloved trumpet constantly with him, and the Lord has to warn him not to blow it too soon. Four years later "Blow, Gabriel, Blow" was introduced by Ethel Merman in Cole Porter's Anything Goes (1934).
The feast of Saint Gabriel was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on March 24. In 1969 it was transferred to 29 September for celebration together with St. Michael and St. Raphael. The Church of England has also adopted the 29 September date, known as Michaelmas.
The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his feast day on 8 November (for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 8 November currently falls on 21 November of the modern Gregorian Calendar, a difference of 13 days). Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: 26 March is the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel" and celebrates his role in the Annunciation. 13 July is also known as the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel", and celebrates all the appearances and miracles attributed to Gabriel throughout history. The feast was first established on Mount Athos when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor Basil II and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges was Patriarch of Constantinople, the Archangel appeared in a cell near Karyes, where he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos, "It is truly meet...".
Additionally, Gabriel is the patron saint of messengers, those who work for broadcasting and telecommunications such as radio and television, remote sensing, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.
Latter-day Saint teachings
In Latter-day Saint theology, Gabriel is believed to have lived a mortal life as the prophet Noah. The two are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.
IslamGod sent the Quran to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through His angel Gabriel (Jibra'il)  and sent a message to most prophets, if not all, revealing their obligations. Gabriel is named numerous times in the Quran (2:97 and 66:4 for example). In 2:97, the Quran expressly narrates:
Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who hath revealed (this scripture) to thy heart by God's leave, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers.
Gabriel makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel, where he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.
In Muslim tradition, Gabriel is considered one of the primary archangels. Exegesis narrates that Muhammad saw Gabriel in his full angelic splendor only twice, the first being when he received his first revelation. Muslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah of John's birth as well as Mary of the future birth of Jesus and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham of the birth of Isaac. These events of Zachariah and Mary can be found also in the Quran, mentioned in surah Maryam, below are some ayat from the Quran referring to the archangel Gabriel (interpretation of the meanings).
Mary 19:2 [This is] a mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zechariah
19:3 When he called to his Lord a private supplication.
19:4 He said, "My Lord, indeed my bones have weakened, and my head has filled with white, and never have I been in my supplication to You, my Lord, unhappy.
19:5 And indeed, I fear the successors after me, and my wife has been barren, so give me from Yourself an heir
19:6 Who will inherit me and inherit from the family of Jacob. And make him, my Lord, pleasing [to You]."
19:7 [He was told], "O Zechariah, indeed We give you good tidings of a boy whose name will be John. We have not assigned to any before [this] name."
19:8 He said, "My Lord, how will I have a boy when my wife has been barren and I have reached extreme old age?"
19:9 [An angel] said, "Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, 'It is easy for Me, for I created you before, while you were nothing.' "
19:10 [Zechariah] said, "My Lord, make for me a sign." He said, "Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three nights, [being] sound."
When the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary:
19:16 And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east.
19:17 And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man.
19:18 She said, "Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah ."
19:19 He said, "I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy."
19:20 She said, "How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?"
19:21 He said, "Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, 'It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed.' "
Art, entertainment, and media
Angels are described as pure spirits.  The lack of a defined form allows artists wide latitude in depicting them. Amelia R. Brown draws comparisons in Byzantine iconography between portrayals of angels and the conventions used to depict court eunuchs. Mainly from the Caucasus, they tended to have light eyes, hair, and skin; and those "castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards,....” As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold. Brown suggests that "Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch". Some recent popular works on angels consider Gabriel to be female or androgynous.
- Baltimore's "Little Italy" has for over 80 years hosted an annual "end of summer" St. Gabriel Festival that features a procession with a statue of the saint carried through the streets.
- 1951: fantasy Angels in the Outfield - orphan prays to St. Gabriel to help her beleaguered Pittsburgh Pirates - and he does.
- 1995: horror film The Prophecy – Gabriel, portrayed by Christopher Walken, searches for an evil soul on Earth during an end-of-days angelic civil war. Gabriel is also a character in The Prophecy II (1998) and The Prophecy 3: The Ascent (2000).
- 2004: action/horror film Van Helsing – Hugh Jackman plays Gabriel Van Helsing, the archangel in the flesh.
- 2005: fantasy/horror film Constantine – Tilda Swinton portrays an androgynous archangel Gabriel, the film's main antagonist on the brink of the Apocalypse.
- 2007: action/horror film Gabriel – Gabriel (portrayed by Andy Whitfield) fights to save the souls in purgatory by defeating the evil fallen angels.
- 2010: apocalyptic supernatural action film Legion – Kevin Durand plays the role of Archangel Gabriel, the leader of the angel army, and the main antagonist.
- 2005: Spanish role-playing game Anima: Beyond Fantasy - Gabriel is as the humans know one of the seven "Beryls" (godlike beings of light) and is identified with the archangel of the same name. She has associated love, friendship, arts, and peace.
- In his epic poem Paradise Lost, John Milton made Gabriel chief of the angelic guards placed over Paradise
- The Hebrew poem "Elifelet" (אליפלט) by Nathan Alterman, put to music and often heard on the Israeli Radio, tells of a heroic, self-sacrificing Israeli soldier being killed in battle. Upon the protagonist's death, the angel Gabriel descends to Earth, in order to comfort the spirit of the fallen hero and take him up to Heaven
- The main character of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses (1988) believes that he is the modern incarnation of Gabriel
- 2012: Japanese light novel series No Game No Life, Jibril is a member of the Flügel race and was a member of the Council of 18 Wings, a prominent section in the government. She is depicted as loving knowledge and books.
The eccentric English hagiographer and antiquarian, Sabine Baring-Gould (1834–1924), wrote the English lyrics to Gabriel's Message, which he translated from the Basque Christmas carol Birjina gaztetto bat zegoen, which was probably related to the 13th or 14th-century Latin chant Angelus Ad Virginem which itself is based on the biblical account of the Annunciation in the Gospel of Luke.
Daniel 8:15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the “likeness of man” and in Daniel 9:21 he is referred to as “the man Gabriel.” David Everson observes that "such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous ... descriptions of angels," as in Genesis 19:5.
Gabriel is most often portrayed in the context of scenes of the 
In chronological order (to see each item, follow the link in the footnote):
- Archangel Gabriel (Triptych), early 10th century, Benaki Museum
- The Archangel Gabriel, Pisan, c. 1325/50, National Gallery of Art
- The Archangel Gabriel, Masolino da Panicale, c. 1420/30, National Gallery of Art
- Justice between the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, Jacobello del Fiore, 1421
- Merode Altarpiece (Triptych), Robert Campin, c. 1425, Metropolitan Museum of Art
- The Angel Gabriel, Agostino di Duccio, c. 1450
- Annunciation, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1475
- The Angel Gabriel, Neroccio d'Landi, c. 1490
- The Angel Gabriel, late 15th or early 16th century, Flemish, National Gallery of Art
- The Angel Gabriel, Ferrari Gaudenzio, 1511, National Gallery, London
- Gabriel delivering the Annunciation El Greco, 1575 (pictured above)
- Go Down Death, Aaron Douglas, 1934
- 1960: The Twilight Zone episode, "A Passage for Trumpet" – The down-and-out musician Joey Crown (Jack Klugman) meets an enigmatic trumpet player named "Gabe" (played by John Anderson) in what has been described as Rod Serling's version of It's a Wonderful Life.
- 2005: TV series Supernatural – Gabriel (portrayed by Richard Speight Jr.) is a runaway archangel posing as the demi-god Loki who kills people he deems evil with a sense of humor, but series protagonists Sam and Dean Winchester eventually discover his true nature. Also known as "the Trickster"
- 2014: Syfy Channel original series Dominion – Gabriel (portrayed by Carl Beukes) is the series antagonist, who plans to kill the Archangel Michael and annihilate humanity.
- 2015: In The Walking Dead season 5, Rick's group encounters a priest called Father Gabriel Stokes, who performs some nefarious acts, behaves as if they haunt him, and in "Spend" tells Alexandria's leaders Deanna and Reg Munroe that Rick's group is evil and untrustworthy.
- Angel of the Lord
- Fleur de lys
- Hierarchy of angels
- List of names referring to El
- Michael (archangel)
- Gabriel's Horn, a mathematical figure
- THE Dedication (Jesus' birth) "The priests serve 4 weeks per year: 1 week twice a year in courses, and the two week-long feasts, unleavened bread and tabernacles. Pentecost is a one-day observance, which would have come before Zacharias' (the 8th) course began, or at the latest, the 1st day of his course, which was from 12 thru 18 Sivan, or noon on the 19th, if Josephus is correct that courses changed at noon on the sabbaths." Josephus Antiquities b.7 ch.14 s.7 "eight days, from sabbath to sabbath." Josephus against Apion b.2 sect.8 "mid-day"
- Joshua 21:9-11 with Luke 1:39-40
- See also Easton's Bible Dictionary angel entry
- S. Vernon McCasland, "Gabriel's Trumpet", Journal of Bible and Religion 9:3:159–161 (August 1941) JSTOR 1456405
- Walters MS 543, fol. 14.
- Milton, Paradise Lost, XI.72ff
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 119
- The Miracle of Axion Estin
- Nega Mezlekia, Notes from the Hyena's Belly: An Ethiopian Childhood (New York: Picador, 2000), p. 266. ISBN 0-312-28914-6.
- Nader, M. The Holy Spirit in the Quran. Submission.org. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- Encyclopedia of Islam, Djabrail
- Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Zachariah; Story of Jesus
- Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Ishmael
-  "The Kitáb-i-Íqán PART ONE". BAHA'I REFERENCE LIBRARY. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- , McFarland (2010)ISBN 0786457562, 9780786457564Face to Face with Angels: Images in Medieval Art and in FilmGorgievski, Sandra.
- "Angels in the Outfield (1951), Turner Classic Movies
- , 25 July 2008New York TimesVogel, Carol. "Angels Appear, and Museums Rejoice",
- Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0797-2.
- Briggs, Constance Victoria (1997). The Encyclopedia of Angels: An A-to-Z Guide with Nearly 4,000 Entries. New York, NY: Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-27921-6.
- Bunson, Matthew (1996). Angels A to Z: A Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. New York, NY: Crown Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0517885379.
- Cruz, Joan C. (1999). Angels and Devils. Rockford, IL: Tan Books & Publishers. ISBN 0-89555-638-3.
- Davidson, Gustav (1994). A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0029070529.
- Dennis, Geoffrey (2007). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 9780738709055.
- Graham, Billy (1994). Angels: God's Secret Agents. Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 9780849950742.
- Guiley, Rosemary (1996). "G". Encyclopedia of Angels (1st ed.). New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. pp. 69–70. ISBN 0-8160-3825-2. LCCN 96012009.
- Guiley, Rosemary (2004). Encyclopedia of Angels (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 9780816050239. LCCN 2003060147.
- Kreeft, Peter J. (1995). Angels and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them?. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 9780898705508.
- Lewis, James R.; Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy (2008-05-01). Angels A to Z (2nd ed.). Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-1-578592-12-8.
- Melville, Francis (2001). The Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and Inspiration (1st ed.). Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-5403-4.
- Ronner, John (1993). Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More!. Murfreesboro, TN: Mamre Press. ISBN 9780932945402.
- Archangel Correspondence. Archangel Gabriel, Angelic & Planetary Symbols. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
- Catholic Encyclopedia. St. Gabriel the Archangel. Last accessed November 15, 2013.
- Celdrán, José Alfredo González, and Ruck, Carl A. P. Daturas for the Virgin Last accessed November 15, 2013.
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- Hassett, Maurice. "Early Christian Representations of Angels." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 25 Dec. 2013