General relativity  

G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu}


Fundamental concepts




Framedragging is an effect on spacetime, predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, that is due to nonstatic stationary distributions of mass–energy. A stationary field is one that is in a steady state, but the masses causing that field may be nonstatic, rotating for instance. The first framedragging effect was derived in 1918, in the framework of general relativity, by the Austrian physicists Josef Lense and Hans Thirring, and is also known as the Lense–Thirring effect.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} They predicted that the rotation of a massive object would distort the spacetime metric, making the orbit of a nearby test particle precess. This does not happen in Newtonian mechanics for which the gravitational field of a body depends only on its mass, not on its rotation. The Lense–Thirring effect is very small—about one part in a few trillion. To detect it, it is necessary to examine a very massive object, or build an instrument that is very sensitive. More generally, the subject of effects caused by mass–energy currents is known as gravitomagnetism, in analogy with classical electromagnetism.
Contents
Frame dragging effects
Rotational framedragging (the Lense–Thirring effect) appears in the general principle of relativity and similar theories in the vicinity of rotating massive objects. Under the Lense–Thirring effect, the frame of reference in which a clock ticks the fastest is one which is revolving around the object as viewed by a distant observer. This also means that light traveling in the direction of rotation of the object will move past the massive object faster than light moving against the rotation, as seen by a distant observer. It is now the best known framedragging effect, partly thanks to the Gravity Probe B experiment. Qualitatively, framedragging can be viewed as the gravitational analog of electromagnetic induction.
Also, an inner region is dragged more than an outer region. This produces interesting locally rotating frames. For example, imagine that a northsouth–oriented ice skater, in orbit over the equator of a black hole and rotationally at rest with respect to the stars, extends her arms. The arm extended toward the black hole will be "torqued" spinward due to gravitomagnetic induction ("torqued" is in quotes because gravitational effects are not considered "forces" under GR). Likewise the arm extended away from the black hole will be torqued antispinward. She will therefore be rotationally sped up, in a counterrotating sense to the black hole. This is the opposite of what happens in everyday experience. There exists a particular rotation rate that, should she be initially rotating at that rate when she extends her arms, inertial effects and framedragging effects will balance and her rate of rotation will not change. Due to the Principle of Equivalence gravitational effects are locally indistinguishable from inertial effects, so this rotation rate, at which when she extends her arms nothing happens, is her local reference for nonrotation. This frame is rotating with respect to the fixed stars and counterrotating with respect to the black hole. This effect is analogous to the hyperfine structure in atomic spectra due to nuclear spin. A useful metaphor is a planetary gear system with the black hole being the sun gear, the ice skater being a planetary gear and the outside universe being the ring gear. See Mach's principle.
Another interesting consequence is that, for an object constrained in an equatorial orbit, but not in freefall, it weighs more if orbiting antispinward, and less if orbiting spinward. For example, in a suspended equatorial bowling alley, a bowling ball rolled antispinward would weigh more than the same ball rolled in a spinward direction. Note, frame dragging will neither accelerate or slow down the bowling ball in either direction. It is not a "viscosity". Similarly, a stationary plumbbob suspended over the rotating object will not list. It will hang vertically. If it starts to fall, induction will push it in the spinward direction.
Linear frame dragging is the similarly inevitable result of the general principle of relativity, applied to linear momentum. Although it arguably has equal theoretical legitimacy to the "rotational" effect, the difficulty of obtaining an experimental verification of the effect means that it receives much less discussion and is often omitted from articles on framedragging (but see Einstein, 1921).^{[4]}
Static mass increase is a third effect noted by Einstein in the same paper.^{[5]} The effect is an increase in inertia of a body when other masses are placed nearby. While not strictly a frame dragging effect (the term frame dragging is not used by Einstein), it is demonstrated by Einstein that it derives from the same equation of general relativity. It is also a tiny effect that is difficult to confirm experimentally.
Experimental tests of framedragging
Proposals
In 1976 Van Patten and Everitt^{[6]}^{[7]} proposed to implement a dedicated mission aimed to measure the Lense–Thirring node precession of a pair of counterorbiting spacecraft to be placed in terrestrial polar orbits with dragfree apparatus. A somewhat equivalent, cheaper version of such an idea was put forth in 1986 by Ciufolini^{[8]} who proposed to launch a passive, geodetic satellite in an orbit identical to that of the LAGEOS satellite, launched in 1976, apart from the orbital planes which should have been displaced by 180 deg apart: the socalled butterfly configuration. The measurable quantity was, in this case, the sum of the nodes of LAGEOS and of the new spacecraft, later named LAGEOS III, LARES, WEBERSAT. Although extensively studied by various groups,^{[9]}^{[10]} such an idea has not yet been implemented. The butterfly configuration would allow, in principle, to measure not only the sum of the nodes but also the difference of the perigees,^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]} although such Keplerian orbital elements are more affected by the nongravitational perturbations like the direct solar radiation pressure: the use of the active, dragfree technology would be required. Other proposed approaches involved the use of a single satellite to be placed in near polar orbit of low altitude,^{[14]}^{[15]} but such a strategy has been shown to be unfeasible.^{[16]}^{[17]}^{[18]} In order to enhance the possibilities of being implemented, it has been recently claimed that LARES/WEBERSAT would be able to measure the effects^{[19]} induced by the multidimensional braneworld model by Dvali, Gabadaze and Porrati^{[20]} and to improve by two orders of magnitude the presentday level of accuracy of the equivalence principle.^{[21]} Iorio claimed these improvements were unrealistic.^{[22]}^{[23]}
Analysis of experimental data
Limiting the scope to the scenarios involving existing orbiting bodies, the first proposal to use the LAGEOS satellite and the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique to measure the Lense–Thirring effect dates back to 1977–1978.^{[24]}^{[25]} Tests have started to be effectively performed by using the LAGEOS and LAGEOS II satellites in 1996,^{[26]} according to a strategy^{[27]} involving the use of a suitable combination of the nodes of both satellites and the perigee of LAGEOS II. The latest tests with the LAGEOS satellites have been performed in 2004–2006^{[28]}^{[29]} by discarding the perigee of LAGEOS II and using a linear combination^{[30]}^{[31]}^{[32]}^{[33]}^{[34]}^{[35]} involving only the nodes of both the spacecraft. Although the predictions of general relativity are compatible with the experimental results, realistic evaluation of the total error raised a debate.^{[36]}^{[37]}^{[38]}^{[39]}^{[40]}^{[41]}^{[42]}
Another test of the Lense–Thirring effect in the gravitational field of Mars, performed by suitably interpreting the data of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has been recently reported.^{[43]} There is also debate about this test.^{[44]}^{[45]}^{[46]} Attempts to detect the Lense–Thirring effect induced by the Sun's rotation on the orbits of the inner planets of the Solar System have been reported as well:^{[47]} the predictions of general relativity are compatible with the estimated corrections to the perihelia precessions,^{[48]} although the errors are still large. However, the inclusion of the radiometric data from the Magellan orbiter recently allowed Pitjeva to greatly improve the determination of the unmodelled precession of the perihelion of Venus. It amounts to −0.0004±0.0001 arcseconds/century, while the Lense–Thirring effect for the Venus' perihelion is just −0.0003 arcseconds/century.^{[49]} The system of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter was investigated as well,^{[50]} following the original suggestion by Lense and Thirring.
Recently, an indirect test of the gravitomagnetic interaction accurate to 0.1% has been reported by Murphy et al. with the Lunar laser ranging (LLR) technique,^{[51]} but Kopeikin questioned the ability of LLR to be sensitive to gravitomagnetism.^{[52]}
The Gravity Probe B experiment^{[53]}^{[54]} was a satellitebased mission by a Stanford group and NASA, used to experimentally measure another gravitomagnetic effect, the Schiff precession of a gyroscope,^{[55]}^{[56]} to an expected 1% accuracy or better. Unfortunately such accuracy was not achieved. The first preliminary results released in April 2007 pointed towards an accuracy of^{[57]} 256–128%, with the hope of reaching about 13% in December 2007.^{[58]} In 2008 the Senior Review Report of the NASA Astrophysics Division Operating Missions stated that it was unlikely that Gravity Probe B team will be able to reduce the errors to the level necessary to produce a convincing test of currently untested aspects of General Relativity (including framedragging).^{[59]}^{[60]} On May 4, 2011, the Stanfordbased analysis group and NASA announced the final report,^{[61]} and in it the data from GPB demonstrated the framedragging effect with an error of about 19 percent, and Einstein's predicted value was at the center of the confidence interval.^{[62]} The findings were accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters.^{[63]}
Possible future tests
A 1% measurement of the Lense–Thirring effect in the gravitational field of the Earth could be obtained by launching at least two entirely new satellites, preferably with active mechanisms of compensation of the nongravitational forces, in eccentric orbits, as stated in 2005 by Lorenzo Iorio.^{[64]} On 13 February 2012 the Italian Space Agency (ASI) launched the LARES satellite with a Vega rocket.^{[65]} The goal of LARES is to measure the Lense–Thirring effect to 1%, but L. Iorio and other researchers raised doubts that this can be achieved,^{[66]}^{[67]}^{[68]}^{[69]}^{[70]}^{[71]}^{[72]} mainly due to the relatively low orbit which LARES should be inserted into bringing into play more mismodelled even zonal harmonics. That is, spherical harmonics of the Earth's gravitational field caused by mass concentrations (like mountains) can drag a satellite in a way which may be difficult to distinguish from framedragging; I. Ciufolini and coworkers ^{[73]} offered replies.^{[74]}
In the case of stars orbiting close to a spinning, supermassive black hole, frame dragging should cause the star's orbital plane to precess about the black hole spin axis. This effect should be detectable within the next few years via astrometric monitoring of stars at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.^{[75]} By comparing the rate of orbital precession of two stars on different orbits, it is possible in principle to test the nohair theorems of general relativity, in addition to measuring the spin of the black hole.^{[76]}
Astronomical evidence
Relativistic jets may provide evidence for the reality of framedragging. Gravitomagnetic forces produced by the Lense–Thirring effect (frame dragging) within the ergosphere of rotating black holes^{[77]}^{[78]} combined with the energy extraction mechanism by Penrose^{[79]} have been used to explain the observed properties of relativistic jets. The gravitomagnetic model developed by Reva Kay Williams predicts the observed high energy particles (~GeV) emitted by quasars and active galactic nuclei; the extraction of Xrays, γrays, and relativistic e^{−}–e^{+} pairs; the collimated jets about the polar axis; and the asymmetrical formation of jets (relative to the orbital plane).
Mathematical derivation of framedragging
Framedragging may be illustrated most readily using the Kerr metric,^{[80]}^{[81]} which describes the geometry of spacetime in the vicinity of a mass M rotating with angular momentum J

c^{2} d\tau^{2} = \left( 1  \frac{r_{s} r}{\rho^{2}} \right) c^{2} dt^{2}  \frac{\rho^{2}}{\Lambda^{2}} dr^{2}  \rho^{2} d\theta^{2}


  \left( r^{2} + \alpha^{2} + \frac{r_{s} r \alpha^{2}}{\rho^{2}} \sin^{2} \theta \right) \sin^{2} \theta \ d\phi^{2} + \frac{2r_{s} r\alpha c \sin^{2} \theta }{\rho^{2}} d\phi dt


where r_{s} is the Schwarzschild radius
 r_{s} = \frac{2GM}{c^{2}}
and where the following shorthand variables have been introduced for brevity
 \alpha = \frac{J}{Mc}
 \rho^{2} = r^{2} + \alpha^{2} \cos^{2} \theta\,\!
 \Lambda^{2} = r^{2}  r_{s} r + \alpha^{2}\,\!
In the nonrelativistic limit where M (or, equivalently, r_{s}) goes to zero, the Kerr metric becomes the orthogonal metric for the oblate spheroidal coordinates
 c^{2} d\tau^{2} = c^{2} dt^{2}  \frac{\rho^{2}}{r^{2} + \alpha^{2}} dr^{2}  \rho^{2} d\theta^{2}  \left( r^{2} + \alpha^{2} \right) \sin^{2}\theta d\phi^{2}
We may rewrite the Kerr metric in the following form
 c^{2} d\tau^{2} = \left( g_{tt}  \frac{g_{t\phi}^{2}}{g_{\phi\phi}} \right) dt^{2} + g_{rr} dr^{2} + g_{\theta\theta} d\theta^{2} + g_{\phi\phi} \left( d\phi + \frac{g_{t\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}} dt \right)^{2}
This metric is equivalent to a corotating reference frame that is rotating with angular speed Ω that depends on both the radius r and the colatitude θ
 \Omega = \frac{g_{t\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}} = \frac{r_{s} \alpha r c}{\rho^{2} \left( r^{2} + \alpha^{2} \right) + r_{s} \alpha^{2} r \sin^{2}\theta}
In the plane of the equator this simplifies to:^{[82]}
 \Omega = \frac{r_{s} \alpha c}{r^{3} + \alpha^{2} r + r_{s} \alpha^{2}}
Thus, an inertial reference frame is entrained by the rotating central mass to participate in the latter's rotation; this is framedragging.
An extreme version of frame dragging occurs within the ergosphere of a rotating black hole. The Kerr metric has two surfaces on which it appears to be singular. The inner surface corresponds to a spherical event horizon similar to that observed in the Schwarzschild metric; this occurs at
 r_{inner} = \frac{r_{s} + \sqrt{r_{s}^{2}  4\alpha^{2}}}{2}
where the purely radial component g_{rr} of the metric goes to infinity. The outer surface is not a sphere, but an oblate spheroid that touches the inner surface at the poles of the rotation axis, where the colatitude θ equals 0 or π; its radius is defined by the formula
 r_{outer} = \frac{r_{s} + \sqrt{r_{s}^{2}  4\alpha^{2} \cos^{2}\theta}}{2}
where the purely temporal component g_{tt} of the metric changes sign from positive to negative. The space between these two surfaces is called the ergosphere. A moving particle experiences a positive proper time along its worldline, its path through spacetime. However, this is impossible within the ergosphere, where g_{tt} is negative, unless the particle is corotating with the interior mass M with an angular speed at least of Ω. However, as seen above, framedragging occurs about every rotating mass and at every radius r and colatitude θ, not only within the ergosphere.
Lense–Thirring effect inside a rotating shell
Inside a rotating spherical shell the acceleration due to the Lense–Thirring effect would be^{[83]}
 \bar{a} = 2d_1 \left( \bar{ \omega} \times \bar v \right)  d_2 \left[ \bar{ \omega} \times \left( \bar{ \omega} \times \bar{r} \right) + 2\left( \bar{ \omega}\bar{r} \right) \bar{ \omega} \right]
where the coefficients are
 d_1 = \frac{4MG}{3Rc^2}
 d_2 = \frac{4MG}{15Rc^2}
for MG ≪ Rc^{2} or more precisely,
 d_1 = \frac{4 \alpha(2  \alpha)}{(1 + \alpha)(3 \alpha)}, \qquad \alpha=\frac{MG}{2Rc^2}
The spacetime inside the rotating spherical shell will not be flat. A flat spacetime inside a rotating mass shell is possible if the shell is allowed to deviate from a precisely spherical shape and the mass density inside the shell is allowed to vary.^{[84]}
See also
References
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 ^ Iorio, L. (December 2009). "An Assessment of the Systematic Uncertainty in Present and Future Tests of the Lense–Thirring Effect with Satellite Laser Ranging". Space Sci. Rev. 148 (14): 363–381.
 ^ Iorio, L., Advances in the measurement of the Lense–Thirring effect with Satellite Laser Ranging in the gravitational field of the Earth, in V.V. Koslovskiy (ed.), Progress in Laser and ElectroOptics Research, NOVA publishers, Hauppauge, N.Y., 2008. ISBN 9781604565584
 ^ Iorio, L. (April 2010), "On the impact of the atmospheric drag on the LARES mission", Acta Phys. Polonica B 41 (4): 753–765 PDF of the paper
 ^ Renzetti, G. (2012). "Are higher degree even zonals really harmful for the LARES/LAGEOS framedragging experiment?".
 ^ Renzetti, G. (2013). "First results from LARES: An analysis".
 ^ "The LARES Scientific Team  Official LARES Web Site".
 ^ Ciufolini, I.; A. Paolozzi; E. C. Pavlis; J. C. Ries; R. Koenig; R. A. Matzner; G. Sindoni; H. Neumayer (2009). "Towards a One Percent Measurement of Frame Dragging by Spin with Satellite Laser Ranging to LAGEOS, LAGEOS 2 and LARES and GRACE Gravity Models". Space Science Reviews 148 (14): 71–104.
 ^
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 ^ Williams, R. K. (1995). "Extracting X rays, Ύ rays, and relativistic e^{−}–e^{+} pairs from supermassive Kerr black holes using the Penrose mechanism". Physical Review D 51 (10): 5387–5427.
 ^ Williams, R. K. (2004). "Collimated escaping vortical polar e^{−}–e^{+} jets intrinsically produced by rotating black holes and Penrose processes". The Astrophysical Journal 611 (2): 952–963.
 ^ Penrose, R. (1969). "Gravitational collapse: The role of general relativity". Nuovo Cimento Rivista 1 (Numero Speciale): 252–276.
 ^
 ^
 ^ Tartaglia, A. (2008). "Detection of the gravitometric clock effect".
 ^ Pfister, Herbert (2005). "On the history of the socalled Lense–Thirring effect". General Relativity and Gravitation 39 (11): 1735–1748.
 ^ Pfister, H.; et al. (1985). "Induction of correct centrifugal force in a rotating mass shell". Class. Quantum Grav. 2 (6): 909–918.
Further reading
 Renzetti, G. (May 2013). "History of the attempts to measure orbital framedragging with artificial satellites". Centr. Eur. J. Phys. 11 (5): 531–544.
External links
 NASA RELEASE: 04351 As The World Turns, It Drags Space And Time
 press release of the MGS test by Iorio in the gravitational field of Mars"New Scientist". Archived from the original on January 20, 2007.
 )unpublishedPaper by Giampiero Sindoni, Claudio Paris and Paolo Ialongo about the MarsMGS test (
 )unpublishedPaper by G. Felici about the MarsMGS test (
 Paper by Kris Krogh about the MarsMGS test
 Reply by Ignazio Ciufolini and Erricos Pavlis about some criticisms by Iorio
 Frame dragging applied to relativistic jets
 Duke University press release: General Relativistic Frame Dragging
 MSNBC report on Xray observations
 Ciufolini et al. LAGEOS paper 1997 – 25% error
 Ciufolini update Sep 2002 – 20% error
 Press release regarding LAGEOS study
 Preprint by Ries et al.
 new article on 2004 reanalysis of the LAGEOS dataNatureCiufolini and Pavlis
 general paper with full referencesNew AstronomyIorio
 paper on the impact of the secular variations of the even zonal harmonics of the geopotentialJ. of GeodesyIorio
 paperPlanetary Space ScienceIorio
 paper on LARESGeneral Relativity and GravitationIorio
 paper on LARESAdvances in Space ResearchIorio
 paper on LARESSpace Science ReviewsAn Assessment of the Systematic Uncertainty in Present and Future Tests of the Lense–Thirring Effect with Satellite Laser Ranging Iorio
 Advances in the measurement of the Lense–Thirring effect with Satellite Laser Ranging in the gravitational field of the Earth Iorio invited book chapter on LARES
An early version of this article was adapted from public domain material from http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast06nov97_1.htm
 ASI (Italian Space Agency) announces the launch of LARES Mission
 Official Site of LARES Mission
