Foreign relations of Azerbaijan

Foreign relations of Azerbaijan

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Azerbaijan
See also

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.

Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors[1] of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of Exxon Mobil Corporation and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).[2]

Contents

  • International organization participation 1
  • Countries 2
  • Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations 3
    • Europe 3.1
    • Africa 3.2
    • Americas 3.3
    • Asia 3.4
    • Oceania 3.5
    • No relations 3.6
  • Disputes 4
    • Nagorno-Karabakh/Armenia 4.1
    • Caviar diplomacy 4.2
  • See also 5
  • Further reading 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

International organization participation

WTrO (observer)

Countries

Diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan currently has diplomatic relations with 160 countries:[3][4] Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Libya, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands,Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Republic of India, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.[5]

Azerbaijan is one of the few countries with predominantly Muslim populations that shares a strategic alliance with Israel. Today, Israel is a major arms supplier to the country. (See Azerbaijan–Israel relations).

Azerbaijan also maintains good relations with the European Union, in the framework of its Eastern European Neighbourhood Policy (See Azerbaijan and the European Union).

Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Vienna.[6]
  • Austria opened an embassy in Baku in 2010.[7]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
 Belarus 1992 See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
  • Before 1918, they were part of the Russian Empire and before 1991, they were part of the Soviet Union.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Minsk.[8]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
  • Also Azerbaijan is a full member of the Council of Europe, Belarus is a candidate.
  • Belarus is a full member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Azerbaijan is an observer member.
 Belgium
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Brussels.[9]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
 Bulgaria 5 June 1992
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Sofia.[10]
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Baku.[11]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
  • Bulgaria recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on 14 January 1992.
 Croatia 26 January 1995
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Zagreb[12]
  • Croatia is represented in Azerbaijan through a non-resident ambassador based in Baku (in the Foreign Ministry).
  • Croatia is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
  • Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Croatia
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Azerbaijan
 Czech Republic 29 January 1993
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Prague, opened on 15 August 2007.[13]
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • The Czech Republic recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on 8 January 1992.
 Denmark 2 April 1992[14] See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations
 Estonia 20 April 1992 See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations
 France
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Paris.[15]
  • France has an embassy in Baku.[16]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
 Germany
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Berlin.[17]
  • Germany has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
 Greece 1992 See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
  • Greece recognized Azerbaijan's independence on 31 December 1991.
  • The Greek embassy in Baku was opened in the spring of 1993.[18]
  • The embassy of Azerbaijan in Athens was opened in August 2004.[19]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
  • Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Greece
Hungary 1992 See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
  • Hungary recognized Azerbaijan's independence on December 26, 1991[20] and the diplomatic relations were established on November 27, 1992.
  • The Hungarian Embassy in Azerbaijan was established on January 12, 2009.
  • Embassy of Azerbaijan in Hungary was opened in September 2004.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
Ireland 1996
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[21]
  • Ireland is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Italy See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Rome.[22]
  • Italy has an embassy in Baku.[23]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
 Latvia 11 January 1994
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Riga.[24]
  • Latvia has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Soviet Union.
  • Azerbaijan recognized the independence of Latvia on 30 August 1991.
  • Latvia recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on 8 January 1992.
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Azerbaijan
 Lithuania 27 November 1995
  • Azerbaijan recognized the independence of Lithuania on 10 September 1991.
  • Lithuania recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on 20 December 1991.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Cooperation with Azerbaijan
  • Foreign Minister of Lithuania to pay official visit to Azerbaijan
 Netherlands
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in The Hague.[25]
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Baku.[26]
 Poland 1991 See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
 Romania 21 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Romania relations
 Russia 4 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Russia relations
 Serbia See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baku.
 Sweden
  • Azerbaijan has a non-resident embassy in London.[28]
  • Sweden has an honorary in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  Switzerland See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bern.[29]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Baku.[30]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Switzerland considers Azerbaijan an important country for economic development cooperation.[31]
 Ukraine 1919 See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kiev.[32]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Baku.[33]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
 United Kingdom 1918 See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in London.[34]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Baku.[35]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Burkina Faso 31 May 2004[36]
 Comoros 2 February 2010[37]
 Eritrea 2004[38]
 Kenya 31 May 2004[36]
 Malawi 21 May 2004[39]
 Rwanda 31 May 2004[36]
 Swaziland 7 January 2010[40]
 Togo 29 December 2010[41]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada 1992[42] See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa.[43]
  • Canada is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.[44]
 Dominican Republic 2007[38]
 Grenada 23 September 2010[45]
 Mexico 14 January 1992[46] See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Mexico City.[47]
  • Mexico has an embassy in Baku.[48]
 Nicaragua 10 February 1994[49]
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Nicaragua through its embassy in Havana,Cuba.
  • Nicaragua is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[50]
 Paraguay 2004[38]
 Saint Lucia 11 March 2010[51]
 Trinidad and Tobago 2011[38]
 United States 1919 See Azerbaijan–United States relations

On 25 December 1991 President former Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan.[52]

  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Washington, DC and has a consulate-general in Los Angeles.[53]
  • United States has an embassy in Baku.[54]

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 1918–1921 Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today. See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War

The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."[55]

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.

If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[56]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[57]

 China
  • The PRC recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on 27 December 1992.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Beijing.[58]
  • The People's Republic of China has an embassy in Baku.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC: Relations with Azerbaijan
 Cyprus

Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus, as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. Azerbaijan, like all other countries except Turkey, formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus (with whom it has not yet established diplomatic relations), which under UN and EU law represents the entire island, but interestingly enough, the parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Cypriot North (The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but Azerbaijan backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Recently, in July 2005, Azerbaijan announced its intentions to recognize TRNC passports and to commence direct flights from Baku to Ercan Airport in the TRNC (by-passing both Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus); however, aside from a flight handled by the private company Imair in August 2005, none have taken place. Azerbaijan has become very cool towards the Turkish Cypriot North, due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[59]

 Georgia 1918 See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC).
 Iran 1918 See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tehran and a consulate-general in Tabriz.
  • Iran has an embassy in Baku and a consulate-general in Nakhchivan City.
  • Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Iran recognized Azerbaijan on 4 January 1992, upgraded its consulate in Baku to establish full diplomatic relations.[52][60]
 Israel 1991 See Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  • Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel.[61]
  • Israel was one of the first countries to recognize Azerbaijan on December 25, 1991.[62]
  • Israel established diplomatic relations on April 7, 1992.[62]
 Japan 7 September 1992
  • Japan recognized Azerbaijan on 28 December 1991.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tokyo since 12 October 2005.[63]
  • Japan has an embassy in Baku since 21 January 2000.[64]
  • Azerbaijan is a full member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Japan is an observer member of the CoE and a partner for co-operation of the OSCE.
 Kazakhstan 27 August 1992 See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Astana.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Baku since 16 December 1994.
 Pakistan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
  • Pakistan was the second country to recognize Azerbaijan after Turkey.
  • Pakistan is among the first countries to open an embassy in Baku.[65]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Islamabad.[66]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Pakistan recognizes Nagorno-Karabakh as part of Azerbaijan.
  • Azerbaijan has also expressed its support for Pakistan's stand on Kashmir.[67]
 North Korea See Foreign relations of North Korea
 South Korea March 23, 1992 See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations South Korea–Azerbaijan relations
 Turkey 1918 See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations

Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

 United Arab Emirates 1 September 1992[70]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Fiji 19 March 2010[71]
 Marshall Islands 10 March 2010[72]
 Tuvalu 16 September 2009[73]

No relations

Diplomatic relations of Azerbaijan:
  Diplomatic relations established
  No diplomatic relations established

Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 174 states (including Palestine and the Vatican City) and the European Union. Azerbaijan has not yet established diplomatic relations with:[74]

Disputes

Nagorno-Karabakh/Armenia

The frozen conflict over the largely OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.[75][76]

Caviar diplomacy

The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money.[77][78] In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".[79]

ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections.[80] Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.[81][82][83][84]

Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world[84][85] and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".[79][86]

See also

Further reading

  • Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
  • Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
  • Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
  • Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"[1]

References

  1. ^ USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ National Holiday of Uzbekistan marked in Baku, AzerTAj
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia
  13. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic
  14. ^
  15. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Paris
  16. ^ French embassy in Baku
  17. ^
  18. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
  24. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Riga
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Swiss embassy in Baku
  31. ^ State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^ a b c Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
  37. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов "Region plus" 2 February 2010
  38. ^ a b c d Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой "1news.az " 13 November 2007
  39. ^ Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
  40. ^ Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
  41. ^ [2] "Topix" 29 December 2010
  42. ^
  43. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ottawa
  44. ^ Embassy of Canada in Ankara (in English, French and Turkish)
  45. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
  46. ^ Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Mexico
  47. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City (in Azeri, English and Spanish)
  48. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Baku (in Spanish)
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^ Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
  52. ^ a b James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
  53. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Washington, DC
  54. ^ Embassy of the United States in Baku (in Azeri and English)
  55. ^ Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
  56. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010. Archived March 8, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^ Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^ a b Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  63. ^
  64. ^ Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan
  65. ^
  66. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan
  67. ^ [3] Archived April 3, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/policy/disarmament/nss/gallery/index.jsp?menu=m_20_70_30&tabmenu=t_5&sp=/webmodule/htsboard/template/read/engreadboard.jsp%3FtypeID=12%26boardid=13778%26seqno=311578
  69. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070803/1_24644.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  70. ^ Культурный обмен "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
  71. ^ "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
  72. ^ Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
  73. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения "AZE.Az " 16 Сентября 2009
  74. ^ Azerbaijan MFA – diplomatic relations Archived March 8, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^
  76. ^ Armenia and Azerbaijan still skirting war in Nagorno-Karabakh. thestar.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013
  77. ^ Aserbaidschan: Die Kaviar-Diplomatie (German). Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved August 3, 2013
  78. ^ Part 1Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of EuropeESI
  79. ^ a b Europe's caviar diplomacy with Azerbaijan must end. EUobserver. Retrieved April 6, 2014
  80. ^ "Disgraced. Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it." 5 November 2013, Berlin
  81. ^
  82. ^
  83. ^ European MPs' praise for Azerbaijan election sparks row BBC News, 17 October 2013
  84. ^ a b Plush hotels and caviar diplomacy: how Azerbaijan's elite wooed MPs The Guardian 24 November 2013
  85. ^
  86. ^ How Baku’s ‘caviar diplomacy’ neutered Europe’s rights standards. Democracy Digest. Retrieved August 4, 2013

External links

  • U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan in Baku
  • Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Washington
  • Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan relations