Ford Modular engine

Ford Modular engine

Ford Modular engine
A 1999 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra engine.
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Also called Ford Triton
Lincoln InTech
Production 1991–present
Combustion chamber
Displacement 281 CID (4601 cc) V8
302 CID (4951 cc) V8
305 CID (4992 cc) V8
323 CID (5284 cc) V8
330 CID (5408 cc) V8
351 CID (5753 cc) V10
354 CID (5808 cc) V8
415 CID (6802 cc) V10
Cylinder bore 3.552 in (90.2 mm)
3.629 in (92.2 mm)
3.68 in (93.5 mm)
3.700 in (94 mm)
Piston stroke 3.543 in (90 mm)
3.649 in (92.7 mm)
3.750 in (95.3 mm)
4.165 in (105.8 mm)
Valvetrain OHC with Roller Finger Followers
Predecessor Ford Windsor V8
Ford 385 V8

The Ford Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's overhead camshaft (OHC) V8 and V10 gasoline powered engine family. Contrary to popular belief, the Modular engine did not get its name from its design or sharing of certain parts among the engine family. Instead, the name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed in a few hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family.[1] The Modular engines are used in various Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks were marketed under the Triton name from 1997–2010 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines. The engines were first produced in Romeo, Michigan but additional capacity was added in Windsor, Canada.


  • 4.6 L 1
    • 2-valve 1.1
    • 3-valve 1.2
    • 4-valve 1.3
  • 5.0 L Coyote 2
    • Boss 302 (Road Runner) Variant 2.1
    • F-150 Variant 2.2
    • Applications 2.3
  • 5.2 L Voodoo 3
  • 5.4 L 4
    • 2-valve 4.1
    • 3-valve 4.2
    • 4-valve 4.3
  • 5.8 L Trinity 5
  • 6.8 L V10 6
    • 2-valve 6.1
    • 3-valve 6.2
  • Ford of Australia 7
  • 5.0 L and 5.3 L Cammer 8
  • World Records 9
  • Intake manifold defect 10
  • Spark plug issues 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13

4.6 L

The 4.6 L (4601 cc, 281 CID)[2] 90-degree V8 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, and 4-valve DOHC versions. The engines were also offered with both aluminum and cast iron blocks, depending on application. The 4.6 L's bore and stroke are nearly square at 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and 90 mm (3.543 in), respectively. Deck height for the 4.6 block is 227 mm (8.937 in) and connecting rod length is 150.7 mm (5.933 in) center to center, giving the 4.6 L a 1.67:1 rod to stroke ratio. Cylinder bore spacing measures 100 mm (3.937 in), which is common to all members of the Modular engine family. All Modular V8s, save for the new 5.0 L Coyote, utilize the same firing order as the Ford 5.0 L HO and 351 CID V8s (1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8). The 4.6 L engines have been assembled at Romeo Engine Plant, located in Romeo, MI, and at Windsor Engine Plant and Essex Engine Plant, both located in Windsor, Ontario.[3]

The final 4.6 L engine was produced in May 2014. The engine was a 2-valve version and installed in a 2014 model year Ford E-Series van.[4]


The first production Modular engine was the 4.6 L 2-valve SOHC V8 introduced in the 1991 Lincoln Town Car.

The 4.6 L 2V has been built at both Romeo Engine Plant and Windsor Engine Plant, and the plants have different designs for main bearings, heads (cam caps: interconnected cam "cages" vs individual caps per cam journal), camshaft gears (bolt-on vs. press-on), valve covers (11 bolts vs. 13 bolts), crankshaft (6 bolts vs. 8 bolts), and cross bolt fasteners for main bearing caps.[5]

Vehicles equipped with the 16-valve SOHC 4.6 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Lincoln Town Car 1991–1993 190 hp (142 kW)
270 lb·ft (366 N·m)
Lincoln Town Car 1994–1997 210 hp (157 kW)
Lincoln Town Car 1998–2000 205 hp (153 kW)
Lincoln Town Car Touring Sedan 1998–2000 239 hp (178 kW)
282 lb·ft (382 N·m)
standard dual exhaust
Lincoln Town Car 2003–2011 239 hp (178 kW)
282 lb·ft (382 N·m)
Ford Crown Victoria
Mercury Grand Marquis
1992–1997 210 hp (157 kW)
270 lb·ft (366 N·m)
with dual exhaust option
Ford Crown Victoria
Mercury Grand Marquis
1998–2000 215 hp (160 kW)
285 lb·ft (386 N·m)
with dual exhaust option
Ford Crown Victoria
Mercury Grand Marquis
2001–2002 235 hp (175 kW)
275 lb·ft (373 N·m)
with dual exhaust option
Ford Crown Victoria
Mercury Grand Marquis
2003–2012 239 hp (178 kW)
282 lb·ft (382 N·m)
with dual exhaust option
Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor 2004–2011 250 hp (186 kW) and 297 lb·ft (403 N·m)
Ford Thunderbird
Mercury Cougar
1994–1995 205 hp (153 kW)
265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
Ford Thunderbird
Mercury Cougar
1996–1997 205 horsepower (153 kW)
280 lb·ft (380 N·m)
Ford F-Series 1997–2000 220 hp (164 kW)
265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
Ford F-Series 2001–2006 231 hp (172 kW) @ 4750 rpm
293 lb·ft (397 N·m) @ 3500 rpm
Ford F-Series 2007–2010 248 hp (185 kW) @ 4750 rpm
294 lb·ft (399 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
Ford E-Series 1997–2014 225 hp (168 kW)
286 lb·ft (388 N·m)
ratings for 2001 and later model year E-Series
Ford Explorer 2002–2004 238 hp (177 kW) @ 4750 rpm
282 lb·ft (382 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
Ford Mustang GT 1996–1997 215 hp (160 kW)
285 lb·ft (386 N·m)
Ford Mustang GT 1998 225 hp (168 kW)
290 lb·ft (393 N·m)
Ford Mustang GT 1999–2004 260 hp (194 kW)
302 lb·ft (409 N·m)
heads changed in 1999 to PI heads
MG ZT 260 2003–2005 260 hp (194 kW)
300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
Rover 75 V8 2003–2005 260 hp (194 kW)
300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
Mobility Ventures MV-1 present 248 hp (185 kW)
294 lb·ft (399 N·m)
also available in factory CNG version


4.6 L 3-valve SOHC V8 installed in a 2006 Ford Mustang GT

The 3-valve SOHC 4.6 L with variable camshaft timing (VCT) first appeared in the redesigned 2005 Ford Mustang.

The engines are equipped with an electronic Charge Motion Control Valve (CMCV) system that provides increased air velocity at low engine speeds for improved emissions and low-rpm torque. Cylinder block material varies between aluminum used in the 2005+ Mustang GT and cast iron used in the 2006+ Ford Explorer and the 2007+ Ford Explorer Sport Trac (see below), though the same aluminum heads are used in all applications.

The 3-valve SOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2005–2008.

Vehicles equipped with the 24-valve SOHC VCT 4.6 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford Mustang GT 2005–2009 300 hp (224 kW)
320 lb·ft (434 N·m)
Ford Mustang Bullitt 2008-2009 315 hp (235 kW)
325 lb·ft (441 N·m)
Ford Mustang GT 2010 315 hp (235 kW)
325 lb·ft (441 N·m)
Ford Explorer
Mercury Mountaineer
2006–2010 292 hp (218 kW)
315 lb·ft (427 N·m)
Ford Explorer Sport Trac 2007–2010 292 hp (218 kW)
315 lb·ft (427 N·m)
Ford F-Series 2009–2010 292 hp (218 kW)
320 lb·ft (434 N·m)


4.6 L 4-valve DOHC InTech V8 installed in a 1996 Lincoln Mark VIII
4.6 L 4-valve DOHC supercharged V8 installed in a 2003 and 2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra

The 4-valve DOHC version of the Modular engine was introduced in the 1993 Lincoln Mark VIII as the 4.6 L Four-Cam V8. Lincoln marketed the engine under the name InTech after 1995.[6]

The 1993–1998 4-valve engines featured cylinder heads with two intake ports per cylinder (split-port) and variable runner length intake manifolds with either vacuum or electrically activated intake manifold runner controls (IMRC) depending on application. The engine was revised for 1999 with new cylinder heads featuring tumble-style intake ports (one intake port feeding two intake valves), new camshaft profiles, and fixed runner-length intake manifolds. These changes resulted in more power, torque and a broader power-band when compared to the earlier 4-valve engines.[5]

All 4.6 L 4-valve engines featured aluminum engine blocks with 6-bolt main bearing caps, the only exception being the 2003–2004 SVT Cobra which had a 4-bolt main cast iron block. The 1999 and earlier engines featured an aluminum block cast in Italy by Fiat subsidiary Teksid S.p.A. Since 1996, all of the 4.6 L 4-valve engines manufactured for use in the SVT Cobra have been hand-built by SVT technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.[7]

The 4-valve DOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1996 and 1997.

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC 4.6 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Lincoln Mark VIII 1993–1998 280 hp (209 kW)
285 lb·ft (386 N·m)
Lincoln Mark VIII LSC 1995–1998 290 hp (216 kW)
295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
Lincoln Continental 1995–1998 260 hp (194 kW)
265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
FWD, Different Bellhousing
Lincoln Continental 1999–2002 275 hp (205 kW)
275 lb·ft (373 N·m)
FWD, Different Bellhousing
Lincoln Aviator 2003–2005 305 hp (227 kW)
320 lb·ft (434 N·m)
Mercury Marauder 2003–2004 302 hp (225 kW)
318 lb·ft (431 N·m)
Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 1996–1998 305 hp (227 kW)
300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 1999, 2001 320 hp (239 kW)
317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 2003–2004 390 hp (291 kW)
390 lb·ft (529 N·m)
Iron block, Supercharged
Ford Mustang Mach 1 2003 305 hp (227 kW)
320 lb·ft (434 N·m)
Ford Mustang Mach 1 2004 310 hp (231 kW)[8]
335 lb·ft (454 N·m)[8]
Marcos Mantis 1997–1999 327 hp (244 kW)
317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
Marcos Mantis GT 1998–1999 506 hp (377 kW)
317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
Panoz AIV Roadster 1997–1999 305 hp (227 kW)
300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
Panoz Esperante 2000–2009 305 hp (227 kW)
300 lb·ft (407 N·m) [9]
Qvale Mangusta 2000–2001 320 hp (239 kW)
317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
MG X-Power SV 2003–2005 320 hp (239 kW)
317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
Koenigsegg CCR V8 2004–2006 806 hp (601 kW)
680 lb·ft (922 N·m)

5.0 L Coyote

The 5.0 L (4951 cc, 302 cid)[10] "Coyote" V8 is the latest evolution of the Modular engine.[11] Ford engineers needed to design a V8, specifically for the Mustang GT, that would compete with the GM 6.2L LS3 used in the new Chevrolet Camaro, and the new Chrysler 6.4L Hemi ESF in the Charger and Challenger. This engine had to remain close to the same physical size of the outgoing 4.6, and share other specifications with it such as bore spacing, deck height, bell housing bolt pattern, etc. in order for the engine to utilize existing Modular production line tooling. The result was the 5.0 Coyote, which produced roughly the same amount of power as its competitors, but with a much smaller displacement. To strengthen the block enough to handle increased output, webbing was extensively used as reinforcement in the casting, rather than increasing the thickness of the walls. The intake plenum was also situated low between the two cylinder banks to meet the height constraint, thus the alternator traditionally placed low and center was moved to the side of the engine. It shares the 4.6 L's 100 mm (3.937 in) bore spacing and 227 mm (8.937 in) deck height,[12] while bore diameter and stroke have increased to 92.2mm (3.629 in) and 92.7mm (3.649 in), respectively. The engine also retains the 4.6 L's 150.7 mm (5.933 in) connecting rod length, which produces a 1.62:1 rod to stroke ratio.[13] The firing order has been changed from that shared by all previous Modular V8s (1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8) to that of the Ford Flathead V8 (1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2).[13] Compression ratio is 11.0:1, and despite having port fuel injection (as opposed to direct injection) the engine can still be run on 87 octane gasoline.

The Coyote features all new 4V DOHC cylinder heads that have shifted the camshafts outboard, which allowed for a compact roller finger follower setup with remote hydraulic valve lash adjusters and improved (raised) intake port geometry. The result is an intake port that outflows the Ford GT intake port by 4 percent and the Yates D3 (NASCAR) intake port up to 0.472" (12 mm) lift, which is the maximum lift of the Coyote's intake cams. Engine redline is 7000 rpm.[13]

The Coyote is Ford's first implementation of its cam-torque-actuated (CTA) Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing (Ti-VCT) in a V8 engine, which allows the power-train control module (PCM) to advance and retard intake and exhaust cam timing independently of each other, providing improved power, fuel economy and reduced emissions. The engine is assembled in Ford's Essex Engine Plant in Windsor, Ontario, using existing Modular tooling.[14]

Boss 302 (Road Runner) Variant

A higher performance variant of the Coyote, dubbed Road Runner internally by Ford, is produced under the Boss 302 moniker used for the resurrected Boss 302 Mustang for the 2012 model year.[15] The Boss 302 receives CNC ported heads cast in 356 aluminum providing additional airflow and strength, and a higher lift exhaust camshaft profile is used. Valvetrain components were lightened as much as possible, including the use of sodium filled exhaust valves, while strengthened powdered metal rods and forged aluminum pistons were added. Piston-cooling jets were also deleted, which are standard in the 5.0 model.[16] Exterior changes include a high-mount intake plenum (as opposed to the standard engine's low-mounted one) with shorter runners to improve high-rpm power. Power is increased from 412 hp (307 kW) to 444 hp (331 kW), and torque drops from 390 lb·ft (530 N·m) to 380 lb·ft (520 N·m) due to the upgrades. The Boss's redline is increased to 7500 rpm, but has been verified stable up to 8400.[17]

F-150 Variant

A torque-biased variant of the Coyote is produced as an alternative to the EcoBoost V6 in the new F-150 pickup truck. The F150 5.0L receives a lower compression ratio (10.5:1), intake camshafts with less duration, cast iron exhaust manifolds, and revised cylinder heads and intake manifold (color change only, no difference in size or shape) intended to promote low-end and mid-range power and torque. The engine retains the Coyote's forged steel crank and piston-cooling jets but benefits from the addition of an external engine oil cooler similar to the Boss 302's. The changes result in the engine's peak horsepower dropping to 360 hp (268 kW; 365 PS) while torque remains the same as the Boss 302 at 380 lb·ft (520 N·m).[18]


For the Australian Ford Falcon-based FPV GT range, the engine has been equipped with a Harrop/Eaton supercharger.[19][20]

The Coyote made Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2011.[21]

The Coyote is available as a crate motor from Ford Racing Performance Parts (FRPP) complete with alternator, manifold, and wiring harness in standard 412 bhp (307 kW; 418 PS) configuration. The Boss 302 is also available from FRPP for a premium over the standard 5.0L.

The engine is gradually replacing the 4.6L and 5.4L Modular V8 units in all Ford vehicles. This is the first time that Ford has used the "5.0" designation since the Windsor 5.0 was discontinued and replaced by the 4.6L Modular unit in 1996 (Mustang).

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC Ti-VCT 5.0 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford Mustang GT 2011-2012 412 hp (307 kW) at 6500 rpm
390 lb·ft (529 N·m) at 4250 rpm
Ford Mustang Boss 302 2012–2013 444 hp (331 kW) at 7500 rpm
380 lb·ft (515 N·m) at 4500 rpm [16][22]
Ford Mustang GT 2013-2014 420 hp (313 kW) at 6500 rpm
390 lb·ft (529 N·m) at 4250 rpm [23]
Ford Mustang GT 2015–present 435 hp (324 kW) at 6500 rpm
400 lb·ft (542 N·m) at 4250 rpm [24]
Ford F-150 2011–2014 360 hp (268 kW) at 5500 rpm
380 lb·ft (515 N·m) at 4250 rpm [25]
Ford F-150 2015–present 385 hp (287 kW) at 5750 rpm
387 lb·ft (525 N·m) at 3850 rpm
Ford Falcon GT[26][27] 2011 335 kW (449 hp) at 5750 rpm
570 N·m (420 lb·ft) at 2200-5500 rpm[19]
Ford Falcon XR8 2014–present 335 kW (449 hp) at 5750 rpm
570 N·m (420 lb·ft) at 2200-5500 rpm[28]
Peak output of [375 kW (503 hp) with overboost[29]
FPV Ford Falcon GT-F 2014 351 kW (471 hp) at 5750 rpm [404 kW (542 hp) with overboost[30]
570 N·m (420 lb·ft) at 2200-5500 rpm[31]

5.2 L Voodoo

The 5.2 L (5163 cc, 315 cid) "Voodoo" is a development of the Coyote engine. Unlike the Coyote, as well as previous Modular V8s, the Voodoo features a flat plane crankshaft. The engine was developed specifically for the Shelby GT350 version of the sixth generation Mustang. Bore and stroke are both up from the 5.0 L Coyote at 94 mm and 93 mm, as is the compression ratio at 12.0:1. The Voodoo makes 526 hp (392 kW) at 7500 RPM and 429 lb·ft (582 N·m) of torque at 4750 RPM and with a redline of 8250 rpm.[32]

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC 5.2 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford Mustang Shelby GT350 2016- 526 hp (392 kW) at 7500 rpm
429 lb·ft (582 N·m) at 4750 rpm
Ford Mustang Shelby GT350R 2016- 526 hp (392 kW) at 7500 rpm
429 lb·ft (582 N·m) at 4750 rpm

5.4 L

The 5.4 L (5408 cc, 330 CID)[2] V8 is a member of the Modular engine family first introduced in the redesigned 1997 Ford F-Series as a Triton V8. Bore diameter is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), the increased stroke necessitated a taller 256 mm (10.079 in) engine block deck height. A 169.1 mm (6.658 in) connecting rod length is used to achieve a 1.60:1 rod to stroke ratio. The 5.4 L 2V was built at the Windsor Engine Plant, while the 5.4 L 3V moved production to the Essex Engine Plant beginning in 2003, then back to Windsor Engine Plant in 2009.[33] The SVT 5.4 L 4-valve engines are built at Romeo Engine Plant, hand assembled on the niche line.[34]


Introduced in 1997, the SOHC 2-valve 5.4 L has a cast iron engine block and aluminum cylinder heads. The 5.4 L features multi-port fuel injection, roller finger followers, fracture-split powder metal connecting rods, and in some applications a forged steel crankshaft.

The 2-valve SOHC 5.4 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1997–1998 and 2000–2002.

Vehicles equipped with the 16-valve SOHC 5.4 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford F-Series 1997–2004 260 hp (194 kW)
350 lb·ft (475 N·m)
Ratings for 1999 and later model years
2004 F-150 Heritage model only
Ford SVT Lightning 1999–2004 380 hp (283 kW)
450 lb·ft (610 N·m)
ratings for 2001 and later model years
Ford F150 Harley Davidson Edition 2002-2003 340 hp (254 kW) at 4500 rpm
425 lb·ft (576 N·m) at 3250 rpm
Supercharged and Intercooled
1997–1998 Ford Expedition 1997–1998 230 hp (172 kW)
325 lb·ft (441 N·m)
1999–2004 Ford Expedition 1999–2004 260 hp (194 kW)
355 lb·ft (481 N·m)
Ford E-Series 1997–2014 255 hp (190 kW)
323 lb·ft (438 N·m)
ratings for 1999 and later model years


In 2002, Ford introduced a new 3-valve SOHC cylinder head with variable camshaft timing (VCT), improving power and torque over the previous 2-valve SOHC version. The 3-valve cylinder head was first used on the 2002 Ford Fairmont 5.4 L Barra 220 engine in Australia.[35] The 3-valve 5.4 L was introduced to the North American market in the redesigned 2004 Ford F-150.

Vehicles equipped with the 24-valve SOHC VCT 5.4 L include the following:
Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford Falcon/Futura/Fairmont/Fairmont Ghia 2002–2005 327 hp (244 kW)
347 lb·ft (470 N·m)
Ford Fairlane G220
Ford LTD
2003–2004 295 hp (220 kW)
347 lb·ft (470 N·m)
Ford Fairlane G8
Ford LTD
2005–2007 309 hp (230 kW)
369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
Ford Falcon/Fairmont Ghia 2006–2007 309 hp (230 kW)
369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
Ford F-Series 2004–2008 300 hp (224 kW)
365 lb·ft (495 N·m)
Except 2004 F150 Heritage model
Ford F-Series 2009–2010 320 hp (239 kW)
390 lb·ft (529 N·m)
Ratings on e85 biofuel
Ford Expedition
Lincoln Navigator
2005–2014 310 hp (231 kW)
365 lb·ft (495 N·m)
Ratings for 2010 and later model years


5.4 L 4-valve DOHC V8 installed in a 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R

In 1999, Ford introduced the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the Lincoln Navigator under the InTech moniker, making it the second engine to use this name. Ford later used versions of the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R, the Ford GT supercar, and the Ford Shelby GT500. The DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L was also used in the Ford Falcon line in Australia under the Boss moniker until 2010, when it was replaced by a locally developed, supercharged version of the 5.0 litre Modular V8.

The SVT Cobra R version of the 5.4 L 4-valve V8 had several key differences from its Lincoln counterpart. While the iron block and forged steel crankshaft were sourced directly from the InTech 5.4 L, the Cobra R powerplant benefited from new, high-flow cylinder heads that were designed with features developed for Ford's "Rough Rider" off-road racing program, application specific camshafts with higher lift and more duration than other 4-valve Modular cams, forged I-beam connecting rods sourced from Carillo, forged pistons that provided a 9.6:1 compression ratio in conjunction with the 52 cc combustion chambers, and a unique high-flow "cross-ram" style aluminum intake manifold. The Cobra R was rated at 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 lb·ft (522 N·m) though chassis dynamometer results have shown these ratings to be conservative with unmodified Cobra Rs often producing nearly 380 hp (280 kW) at the rear wheels.[36]

The Ford GT version of the 5.4 L is a highly specialized version of the Modular engine. It is an all-aluminum, dry-sump 5.4 L 4-valve DOHC with a Lysholm screw-type supercharger and showcases numerous technological features, such as dual fuel injectors per cylinder and oil squirters for the piston skirts, not found in other Ford Modular engines of the time. The GT 5.4 L benefits from an improved version of the high-flow 2000 Cobra R cylinder head and unique high-lift camshafts. The GT is rated at 550 hp (410 kW) and 500 lb·ft (678 N·m).[37]

5.4 L 4-valve DOHC supercharged V8 installed in a 2007 Ford Shelby GT500

The Shelby GT500 uses a 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L with an Eaton M122H Roots type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler.[38] The GT500 5.4 L shares its high-flow cylinder head castings with the Ford GT, with only minor machining differences, and shares camshafts with the 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra; which have less lift and duration than the Ford GT camshafts. The 2007–2010 GT500 engine used an iron engine block, while the 2011 GT500 5.4 L receives a new aluminum engine block, with Ford's first production application of their patented Plasma Transferred Wire Arc (PTWA) cylinder coating, eliminating the need for pressed in cylinder liners. The PTWA spray apparatus was co-developed by Ford and Flame-Spray Industries of Long Island, New York, for which they received the 2009 IPO National Inventors of the Year Award.[39] The 2011 GT500 engine weighs 102 lb (46 kg). less than the previous iron-block version, thanks in part to the lack of cast iron cylinder liners.[40] All of the 5.4 L 4-valve engines destined for use in SVT vehicles, such as the Ford GT and Shelby GT500, have been hand-built by technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.[7]

Vehicles equipped with the 32-valve DOHC 5.4 L include the following:

Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Lincoln Navigator 1999–2004 300 hp (224 kW)
355 lb·ft (481 N·m)
Lincoln Blackwood 2002 300 hp (224 kW)
355 lb·ft (481 N·m)
Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R 2000 385 hp (287 kW)
385 lb·ft (522 N·m)
Ford Shelby GT500 2007–2009 500 hp (373 kW)
480 lb·ft (651 N·m)
SAE J1349 certified
Ford Shelby GT500 2010 540 hp (403 kW)
510 lb·ft (691 N·m)
Ford Shelby GT500 2011-2012 550 hp (410 kW)
510 lb·ft (691 N·m)
Aluminum block, Supercharged
Ford GT 2005–2006 550 hp (410 kW)
500 lb·ft (678 N·m)
Aluminum block, Supercharged
Ford Falcon XR8 2002–2005 349 hp (260 kW)
369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
Ford Falcon FPV GT 2003 389 hp (290 kW)
384 lb·ft (521 N·m)
Ford Falcon FPV GT Cobra 2007 405 hp (302 kW)
398 lb·ft (540 N·m)
Ford Falcon FPV GT 2008 422 hp (315 kW)
406.5 lb·ft (551 N·m)

5.8 L Trinity

[41] The 5.8 engine is formally known as the Trinity Engine or 5.8-liter V-8. That's a little different from Coyote, which designates just the 5.0 TiVCT V-8 in the Mustang GT, or RoadRunner for the Boss 302 engine. Finally, for reference, the previous generation 5.4 GT500 engine is codenamed Condor.[42]

The 5.8 L benefits from cylinder heads with improved coolant flow, Ford GT camshafts, piston-cooling oil jets similar to those found on the 5.0 Coyote, new 5-layer MLS head gaskets, an over-rev function that increases the red line to 7000 rpm for up to 8 seconds (from 6250 rpm), and a compression ratio increased to 9.0:1 (from 8.5:1). Displacement is 355 cu. in. (5,812 cc) with a bore diameter of 93.5 mm (3.681 in) and stroke of 105.8 mm (4.165 in). Boost is supplied by a 2.3L TVS supercharger with maximum boost of 14 psi.[43] Trinity has 37.0 mm intake valves and 32.0 mm exhaust valves.

  • 2013-2014 Ford Shelby GT500, 4-valve DOHC, Aluminum block, Supercharged, 662 hp (494 kW) and 631 lb·ft (856 N·m) [44]

6.8 L V10

The 6.8 L (6760 cc, 413 CID) SOHC V10 is another variation of the Modular family created for use in large trucks. Bore size is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), identical to the 5.4 L V8. Both 2-valve and 3-valve versions have been produced. The 6.8 L uses a split-pin crank with 72° firing intervals and a balance shaft to quell vibrations inherent to a 90° bank angle V10 engine. The engine's firing order is 1-6-5-10-2-7-3-8-4-9. The 2-valve version was first introduced in 1997, with a 3-valve non-VCT version to follow in 2005. The 3-valve engines were built alongside the 2-valve engines at Ford's Windsor, Ontario LVL engine line, but moved production to the larger Windsor Engine Plant in 2009.

Vehicles equipped with the 6.8 L V10 Modular engine include the following:


Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford E250-E450
F53 Motorhome
1997–2004 305 hp (227 kW)
420 lb·ft (569 N·m)
ratings for 2000 and later model years
Ford F250-F550
F53 Motorhome
1997–2004 310 hp (231 kW)
425 lb·ft (576 N·m)
ratings for 2000 and later model years
Ford Excursion 2000-2005 310 hp (231 kW)
425 lb·ft (576 N·m)
ratings for 2000 and later model years



Vehicle Name Production Years Engine Output Notes
Ford Super Duty 2005-2010
F450-F550 Chassis Cab 2005–present
F53, F59 stripped chassis 2005–present 362 hp (270 kW) 457 lb·ft (620 N·m)[46]
Ford F-650/F-750 Super Duty 2012–present
Blue Bird Vision 2010–present 362 hp (270 kW)
457 lb·ft (620 N·m)
Equipped to run on propane

Ford of Australia

5.4 L 3-valve VCT SOHC Boss V8

Ford Australia used 5.4 L Modular V8s in the Ford Falcon and previously on the Ford Fairlane sedan model ranges, as well as in its high performance Ford Performance Vehicles (FPV) division models, until mid-2010, when they were replaced by the 5.0L. The DOHC 5.4 L V8s are named Boss by Ford Australia while the SOHC versions with VCT were named Barramundine (Barramundine was in fact the codename for the update of the Falcon, not the SOHC V8), with a number designation referring to power output in kW. The 3V SOHC Barra engines the 4V DOHC Boss short blocks and cylinder heads were built in Windsor, Ontario. The Boss engines include some locally sourced parts such as intake and pistons. All are built with cast-iron blocks.

Ford of Australia 5.4 L engines include:

  • Barra 220 3-valve SOHC 5.4 L V8, 295 hp (220 kW) @ 4750 rpm, 348 lb·ft (472 N·m) @ 3250-4000 rpm
  • Barra 230 3-valve SOHC 5.4 L V8, 309 hp (230 kW) @ 5350 rpm, 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 3500 rpm
  • Boss 260 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 349 hp (260 kW) @ 5250 rpm, 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
  • Boss 290 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 389 hp (290 kW) @ 5500 rpm, 384 lb·ft (521 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
  • Boss 302 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 405 hp (302 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 398 lb·ft (540 N·m) @ 4750 rpm
  • Boss 302 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 405 hp (302 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 406.5 lb·ft (551 N·m) @ 4750 rpm for the FPV GS model
  • Boss 315 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 422 hp (315 kW) @ 6500 rpm, 406.5 lb·ft (551 N·m) @ 4750 rpm

5.0 L and 5.3 L Cammer

5.0 L R50 Cammer 4-valve DOHC V8 engine installed in a Grand-Am Cup Mustang FR500C.

In 2005, Ford Racing Performance Parts introduced a 5.0 L (4992 cc, 305 CID) V8 crate engine for use in motor racing and home-made performance cars, officially called M-6007-T50EA, but more widely known as "Cammer". Since then, other higher performance variations of the Cammer have been introduced for KONI Sports Car Challenge and GT4 European Cup. All versions of the Cammer are DOHC 4-valve per cylinder designs with a 94 mm (3.700 in) bore and a 90 mm (3.543 in) stroke. The Cammer achieves its larger 94 mm (3.7 in) bore by resleeving the 4.6 L aluminum block.[47]

The T50 Cammer crate engine, the least expensive and most street oriented version, uses derivatives of the cylinder heads, variable runner-length magnesium intake manifold, and camshafts first used in the 2000 FR500 Mustang concept car. These parts are unique to the T50 Cammer crate engine and are not found in any other production Modular applications. The T50 has an 11.0:1 compression ratio and exceeds 420 horsepower (310 kW) and with the proper exhaust manifolds.[47]

The Cammer that has seen success in Grand Am Cup powering the Mustang FR500C is officially called M-6007-R50 and features a unique dual plenum, fixed runner-length magnesium intake manifold, Ford GT aluminum cylinder heads, unique camshafts of undisclosed specifications, and an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The R50 Cammer produces over 450 hp (336 kW) without restrictor plates. Upon introduction the R50 Cammer-powered Mustang FR500C proved to be dominant in Grand-Am Cup, having achieved five victories and podium appearances in nearly every race in the GS class during the 2005 season, giving David Empringham the championship title with the Multimatic Motorsports team, and Ford the manufacturer's title.

Robert Yates publicly expressed interest in using a similar 5.0 L 4-valve DOHC Modular V8 to compete in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series (now Sprint Cup Series).[48][49][50] Roush-Yates supplies a naturally aspirated [51] 550 hp (410 kW) 5.0 L Cammer for use in the Mustang FR500GT3 and Matech-Ford GT3 which participate in the FIA GT3 European Championship,[52][53] and a naturally aspirated 665 hp (496 kW) 5.3L Cammer for use in the 2010 Matech-Ford GT1 that competes in FIA GT1 World Championship.[54] The 5.3L Cammer's extra displacement is achieved via a 95.3 mm (3.750 in) stroke.

World Records


On February 28, 2005 the Koenigsegg CCR used a modified, Rotrex supercharged Ford Modular 4-valve DOHC 4.6L V8, which produced 806 hp (601 kW), to achieve a top speed of 241 mph (388 km/h). This certified top speed was recorded on February 28, 2005 in Nardo, Italy and broke the McLaren F1's world record for fastest production car.[55] The accomplishment was recognized by Guinness World Records in 2005, who gave the Koenigsegg CCR the official title of World's Fastest Production Car. The Koenigsegg record was broken several months later by the Bugatti Veyron. This engine is the basis for Koenigsegg's twin-supercharged flexible fuel V8 seen in the CCX.

1/4 Mile

On November 13, 2012 MMR (Modular Motorsports Racing) using a modified 5.0 Coyote engine which produced over 2000HP set the world record for the fastest 5.0 Coyote engine in the quarter mile with a 7.02 @ 202MPH. This elapsed time and mph record was recorded during competition at Famoso Raceway, Bakersfied CA. The accomplishment was recognized by sanctioning bodes such as the NMCA (National Muscle car Association) and NMRA (National Mustang Racers Association) and backed up on its previous attempt as outlined by NHRA (National Hot Rod Association) guidelines giving it the official title of the worlds fastest 5.0 Coyote Powered vehicle. [56]

Intake manifold defect

Starting in 1996, Ford began installing a DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold onto the 2-valve SOHC engines. Plaintiffs in class action lawsuits alleged that the coolant crossover passage of these intake manifolds may crack, resulting in coolant leakage. A US class-action suit was filed on behalf of owners, resulting in a settlement announced on December 17, 2005.

Starting with the 2002 model year, and implemented halfway through the 2001 lineup, Ford began using a revised DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold with an aluminum front coolant crossover that corrected the issue. Replacement intakes were also made available for 1996–2001 engines.[57] To be eligible for reimbursement, owners needed to contact a Ford, Lincoln or Mercury dealer within 90 days of December 16, 2005. Further, Ford offered an extended warranty for this part, for seven years from the start date (which means the initial vehicle sale date) without a mileage limitation.

The following vehicles were included in this class-action suit settlement:

Spark plug issues

2-valve 4.6 L, 5.4 L, and 6.8 L engines found in many 1997–2008 Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles have an issue with stripped or missing spark plug threads in the cylinder heads. Ford acknowledges this issue in TSB 07-21-2 as well as earlier TSBs. Ford's TSB does not state that this issue is caused by owner neglect. Ford's only authorized repair procedure for out-of-warranty vehicles is to use the LOCK-N-STITCH aluminum insert and tool kit. For vehicles under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty, Ford will only cover the replacement of the entire cylinder head; however, the Ford recommended spark plug service interval extends beyond the duration of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.[58]

3-valve 5.4 L and 6.8 L engines built before 10/9/07 and 3-valve 4.6 Ls built before 11/30/07 found in many 2004–2008 Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles have an issue with difficult to remove spark plugs which can cause part of the spark plug to become seized in the cylinder head. The source of the problem is a unique plug design that is made with a 2-piece shell, which often separates, leaving the lower portion of the spark plug stuck deep in the engine. Ford acknowledges this issue in TSB 08-7-6 as well as earlier TSBs. Ford's TSB does not state that this issue is caused by owner neglect. The TSB provides a special procedure for spark plug removal on these engines. For situations where the spark plug has broken in the head, Ford distributes multiple special tools for removing the seized portion of the plug. The multiple procedures required for the different cases/situations of plugs seized in these engines are explained in the TSB. This repair is covered for vehicles under warranty; however, the Ford recommended spark plug service interval extends beyond the duration of the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.[59]

Federal-Mogul, parent company of Champion Spark Plug, and Brisk Silver Racing have introduced a 1-piece machined shell 3-valve spark plugs that addresses the OEM 2-piece spark plug's separation issues.[60][61]

See also


  1. ^ [1] "Ford readies its mod squad - 32-valve 4.6 L Modular V-8 engine to be introduced late this year in the Lincoln Mark VIII automobile".
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ Ford Motor Company. 1993 Lincoln Mark VIII, pages 5–6,18. 1993.
  7. ^ a b When Factory Automation Just Isn't Appropriate : Industrial Market Trends
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b c 5.0 Mustang & Super Fords (March 2010) "Coyote Beautiful"
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Ford Performance Vehicles, (2 September 2010), News & Media: FPV announces supercharged V8 engine program
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ Ford's Power Trip
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ LINCOLN 4.6 TIMING
  46. ^
  47. ^ a b
  48. ^ [2] Robert Yates on Modulars in Winston Cup.
  49. ^ [3] Robert Yates saw the light.
  50. ^ [4] "While we know Robert Yates is personally interested in promoting the Modular engine for Winston Cup..."
  51. ^
  52. ^ News: Ford FR500GT Mustang To Go After European FIA Racing With Some Serious Man-Boy Action
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ Koenigsegg World Record Press Release
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^ Ford TSB 08-7-6
  60. ^ Ford 3-Valve Plug By Champion
  61. ^