Ford Model A (1927–31)
|Ford Model A|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
Long Beach, California
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Trafford Park, England
Saint Paul, Minnesota
|Body and chassis|
A – Chassis
Ford Model AF
Ford Model AA
|Engine||201 CID (3.3 L) L-head-4 I4|
|Transmission||3-speed sliding gear manual|
|Wheelbase||103.5 in (2,629 mm)|
|Length||165 in (4,191 mm)|
|Width||67 in (1,702 mm)|
|Curb weight||2,265 lb (1,027 kg)|
|Predecessor||Ford Model T|
Ford Model B
Ford Model 18
The Ford Model A of 1928–1931 (also colloquially called the A-Model Ford or the A, and A-bone among rodders and customizers) was the second huge success for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not sold until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years. This new Model A (a previous model had used the name in 1903–1904) was designated as a 1928 model and was available in four standard colors.
By 4 February 1929, one million Model As had been sold, and by 24 July, two million. The range of body styles ran from the Tudor at US$500 (in grey, green, or black) to the Town Car with a dual cowl at US$1200. In March 1930, Model A sales hit three million, and there were nine body styles available.
The Model A was produced through 1931. When production ended in March, 1932, there were 4,849,340 Model As made in all styles. Its successor was the Model B, which featured an updated 4-cylinder engine, as well as the Model 18 which introduced Ford's new flathead (sidevalve) V8 engine.
- Features 1
- Historical context of Model A development 2
- Film and media 3
- Gallery 4
- References 5
- Bibliography 6
- Further reading 7
- External links 8
Prices for the Model A ranged from US$385 for a roadster to $1400 for the top-of-the-line Town Car. The engine was a water-cooled L-head 4-cylinder with a displacement of 201 cu in (3.3 l). This engine provided 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS). Top speed was around 65 mph (105 km/h). The Model A had a 103.5 in (2,630 mm) wheelbase with a final drive ratio of 3.77:1. The transmission was a conventional 3-speed sliding gear manual unsynchronised unit with a single speed reverse. The Model A had 4-wheel mechanical drum brakes. The 1930 and 1931 editions came with stainless steel radiator cowling and headlamp housings.
The Model A came in a wide variety of styles: Coupe (Standard and Deluxe), Business Coupe, Sport Coupe, Roadster Coupe (Standard and Deluxe), Convertible Cabriolet, Convertible Sedan, Phaeton (Standard and Deluxe), Tudor Sedan (Standard and Deluxe), Town Car, Fordor (2-window) (Standard and Deluxe), Fordor (3-window) (Standard and Deluxe), Victoria, Station Wagon, Taxicab, Truck, and Commercial.
The Model A was the first Ford to use the standard set of driver controls with conventional clutch and brake pedals; throttle and gearshift. Previous Ford models used controls that had become uncommon to drivers of other makes. The Model A's fuel tank was located in the cowl, between the engine compartment's fire wall and the dash panel. It had a visual fuel gauge, and the fuel flowed to the carburetor by gravity. A rear view mirror was optional. In cooler climates, owners could purchase an aftermarket cast iron unit to place over the exhaust manifold to provide heat to the cab. A small door provided adjustment of the amount of hot air entering the cab. Model A was the first car to have safety glass in the windshield.
The Soviet company GAZ, which started as a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union, made a licensed version of the Model A from 1932–1936. This itself was the basis for the FAI and BA-20 armored car, which saw use as scout vehicles in the early stages of World War II.
In Europe, where cars were taxed according to engine size, Ford equipped the Ford Model A with a 2,033 cc (124.1 cu in) engine providing a claimed output of just 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS). However, the engine size was still large enough to equate to a fiscal horsepower of 14.9 hp  (as opposed to the 24 hp of the larger engine) and attracted a punitive annual car tax levy of £24 in the UK and similar penalties in other principal European markets. It therefore was expensive to own and too heavy and thirsty to achieve volume sales, and so unable to compete in the newly developing mass market, while also too crude to compete as a luxury product. European manufactured Model As failed to achieve the sales success in Europe that would greet their smaller successor in England and Germany.
Historical context of Model A development
From 1913 through the early 1920s, the Ford Motor Company dominated the automotive market with its Model T. However, during the mid-1920s, this dominance eroded as competitors, notably General Motors, caught up with Ford's mass production system and began to outcompete Ford in some areas, especially by offering more powerful engines, new convenience features, or cosmetic customization. Also, features Henry considered to be unnecessary, such as electric starters, were gradually shifting in the public's perception from luxuries to essentials.
Ford's sales force recognized the threat and advised
- Model A Ford Reference Sheet, Owners Manual, and Help
- Model A Ford Club of America - 
- Model A Restorers Club - 
- Ford Model AA Truck Club - 
- A-Ford Club Nederland - 
- Ford Model A at DMOZ
- Follow Henry As We Tour The Long Beach Assembly Plant circa 1930
- Ford Model A Assembly Plant in Edgewater NJ
- Fordbarn, An active forum for discussion about the Model A Ford
- 365 Days of A, One man's quest to drive a Ford Model A for an entire year.
- 1930 Model A sales brochure
- Henry, Leslie R. (2013). How to Restore the Model A Ford. Vermont:
- . Various republications, including ISBN 9780814332795.
- Gauld, Graham. "The Ford Motor Company", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles, Volume 6, pp. 681–700. London: Phoebus, 1974.
- Kimes, Beverly (1996). standard catalog of American Cars 1805-1942. Krause publications.
- Bianco, Johnny, "Leadfest" in Rod & Custom, 9/00, p. 86.
- Gauld, p. 693.
- Gauld, p. 694.
- "Directory Index: Ford/1930_Ford/1930_Ford_Brochure_02". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Sorensen 1956, pp. 206–208.
- "0 – 100...We celebrate a century of Ford in style....". Auto Express. Issue 724: 56–62. date 2–8 October 2002.
- Clutton, Cecil, Paul Bird and Anthony Harding. The Vintage Motor Car Pocketbook ; The Motoring Encyclopaedia (1935?)
- "Were those the days?: 1930 24hp Ford Tudor Saloon". Autocar. 135 nbr 3938: 34–38. 16 September 1971.
- Sorensen 1956, pp. 217–219.
- Hounshell 1984, pp. 263–264.
- Sloan 1964, pp. 162–163.
- Hounshell 1984, pp. 280–292.
- Hounshell 1984, pp. 280–281.
- Hounshell 1984, pp. 263–301, Chapter 7: Cul-de-sac: The Limits of Fordism & the Coming of "Flexible Mass Production".
- Sorensen 1956, pp. 217–231, Chapter 16: Farewell to Model T.
- Cardinale, Anthony. Chileans on a Roll in Vintage Car Trek Detroit-Bound Model A Ford Arrives Here After 21,700 Miles. Buffalo News. Buffalo, N.Y.: November 30, 1994 p. A.1.
1928 Model A Business Coupe
1930 or 1931 Deluxe Roadster
1928 Model A engine with modern aftermarket air filter
1929 Model AA heavy-duty truck variant of the Model A
1928 Model A open-cab (roadster) pickup
1931 Deluxe Tudor
1929 Ford Model A Gazogene on display at the Tampa Bay Automobile Museum. This car was retrofitted in 1939 to use an alternative fuel in the form of wood or charcoal.
Several Model As have obtained particular notoriety. The America's Most Beautiful Roadster" awards at the Oakland Roadster Show before making numerous film and television appearances. Between October 1992 to December 1994, Hector Quevedo, along with his son Hugo, drove a 1928 Model A 22,000 miles (35,000 km) from his home in Punta Arenas, Chile to the Ford Motor Company headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan. The car required minimal service including a flat tire and transmission work in Nicaragua and is now housed in the Henry Ford Museum.
Perhaps in reference to the remarkable upgrade from the previous Model T, a song was written about the Model A by Irving Kaufman called Henry's Made a Lady Out Of Lizzie, a reference to the moniker Tin Lizzie given to the Model T.
Film and media
It was during the period from the mid-1920s to early 1930s that the limits of the first generation of mass production, epitomized by the Model T production system, became apparent. The era of "flexible mass production" had begun.
Henry's disdain for cosmetic vanity as applied to automobiles led him to leave the Model A's styling to a team led by his son Edsel, even though he would take credit for it despite his son doing more of the work.