Ford Laser

Ford Laser

Ford Laser
1993 Ford Laser (KH) GL Grand Slam 5-door hatchback
Manufacturer Ford
Also called Ford Meteor
Production 1980–2003
Assembly Oakville, Ontario, Canada[1]
Taoyuan City, Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho, CKD)[2]
Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia[3]
Hai Duong, Vietnam[4]
Rayong, Thailand (AAT)[5]
Homebush, Australia[6]
New Zealand[6]
United States[6]
Santa Rosa, Laguna, Philippines[7]
Valencia, Venezuela
Bogotá, Colombia
Pretoria, South Africa
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Related Ford Capri (Australia)
Ford Escort (North America)
Mazda 323
Mercury Tracer
Predecessor Ford Escort
Successor Ford Focus

The Ford Laser was a compact car which was sold by Ford in Asia, Oceania, and parts of South America, and Africa. It has generally been available as a sedan or hatchback, although convertible, wagon and pick-up versions have also been available in different markets. The sedan version was labelled Ford Meteor in Australia between 1981 and 1987.

The Ford Laser was a restyled version of the Familia/323 models produced by Mazda in Japan from 1980 onwards. Ford had acquired a 25% stake in Mazda in 1979.

Platform and assembly-line sharing with the locally produced Mazda Familia in Japan allowed the Laser in that market to be offered with a plethora of engine, paint and trim configurations not available anywhere else in the world. This was most notably evident during the 1980s with multiple turbocharged variants, unique bodyshells such as the cabriolet, and full-time 4WD models all available years before their debuts in other markets (and in some cases, never making it offshore at all). Along with the Japanese produced Ford Telstar and Ford Festiva, the Laser was sold at special Autorama dealerships.

In Australia, New Zealand and Europe where Ford was seen as a local brand, the Laser outsold its Mazda twin, but in neighbouring Asian countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong, as well as Japan itself, the reverse was the case. However, pooling resources with Mazda allowed Ford to maintain a foothold in the region. This was also the case in South America, Africa, and the Caribbean, where the Laser was also sold, in many cases being locally assembled.


  • First generation (KA, KB; 1981–1985) 1
    • Meteor (GA, GB) 1.1
  • Second generation (KC, KE; 1985–1989) 2
    • Laser (KC) and Meteor (GC) 2.1
    • Laser (KE) 2.2
  • Third generation (KF, KH; 1989–1994) 3
  • Fourth generation (KJ, KL, KM; 1994–1998) 4
  • Fifth generation (KN, KQ; 1999–2002) 5
  • References 6

First generation (KA, KB; 1981–1985)

First generation (KA, KB)
Ford Laser (KA) GL 5-door
Production 1980–1985
Body and chassis
Body style 3/5-door hatchback
4-door sedan
Related Mazda Familia/323
Engine 1.1 L E1 I4
1.3 L E3 I4
1.5 L E5 I4
1.5 L E5T turbo I4
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
3-speed automatic

The KA Laser (Australian model code), built under license from Mazda, was introduced in March 1981, replacing the rear-wheel-drive Escort in Australia. The range was available as a hatchback, in both three- and five-door varieties, as well as a four-door sedan badged Ford Meteor. Ford Australia marketed them as separate vehicles, providing a worthy rival to Japanese models like the Toyota Corolla. Originally sold only with the 1.3-litre engine, the smaller 1.1-litre engine was never available in Australia. Later, 1.5-litre versions were added, eventually even a turbocharged version. In January 1983, Laser underwent a facelift to become the KB.[8] Light changes were made to the rear, while the front was redesigned in a more modern style, aligning it with Ford's corporate look of the era.

In Japan this is referred to as the "BE" Laser, which was identical to the Australian KB series. The BE model code relates to the BD model code used for the corresponding Familia/323. The first Lasers went on sale in Japan in late 1982. Fuel-injection and a 115 PS turbocharged model were added in July 1983; these variants were never offered for sale outside of Japan.

Aside from being built in Australia and Japan, some Lasers were also assembled in New Zealand. In New Zealand, the Laser was sold as both a hatchback and sedan, and was later assembled alongside the Mazda 323 at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri, Auckland in a joint venture between Ford New Zealand and Mazda. New Zealand-built Laser hatchbacks were available with the 1.1-litre (Ritz), 1.3-litre (GL), and 1.5 litre (Sports) engines, while the Laser sedan (L, Ghia) was not available with the 1.1-litre engine.[9]

The Laser was also assembled in some countries in Latin America, such as Colombia, and Venezuela, and sold in Argentina. In Mexico, the first-generation Laser had a front end similar to the North American Mazda GLC.[10] It was also sold in right hand drive markets in the Caribbean such as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, as well as Bermuda.

Assembly of the Laser also occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia (in right hand drive) and in left hand drive for markets like Taiwan and the Philippines. In Taiwan, (where it was assembled by local joint venture Ford Lio Ho).

The Laser was also introduced to Zimbabwe in 1981.

  • Mazda E1, 41 kW (55 hp) 1.1 L Carb 8V SOHC ('Ritz', 'L', and 'GL' New Zealand models)
  • Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
  • Mazda E5, 54 kW (72 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L', 'GL' and 'GHIA' models)
  • Mazda E5, 59 kW (79 hp) 1.5 L Twin Carb 8V SOHC ('Sports' models)
  • Mazda E5T, 78 kW (105 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC Turbo (limited edition 'Turbo' models)
  • Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Turbo' Japan models)

Meteor (GA, GB)

Introduced in 1981, Ford Meteor was the name given to the sedan version of the Laser.[11][12]

When the Meteor was released in Australia in 1981 as the GA series, it replaced the larger Cortina, although this was a temporary measure before the Telstar was introduced.

The Meteor grille differed slightly and was available on one other model: a home-market Mazda Familia sedan. Replacing the Laser's amber indicators were white ones, and the grille had more of an "egg-crate" pattern than the plain black slats of the Laser. The Meteor also had larger headlights than the Laser, which had smaller ones "sunken" into the bodyshell. In Australia, it was only available with a 1.5 litre engine at launch, in GL and Ghia trims—the 1.1 litre or 1.3 litre engines were not offered. Naturally, it had a hard job replacing the Cortina, which had engines beginning at 2.0 liter, up to a 4.1 liter six-cylinder, as well as a station wagon option.

The mid-term facelifted model of 1983, coded GB, brought the range closer together, though Meteors continued as a separate and slightly more premium line.

Second generation (KC, KE; 1985–1989)

Second generation (KC, KE)
Ford Laser (KC) Ghia 5-door
Production Japan: 1985–1989
Australia: 1985–1990 (sedan, hatchback)
Australia: 1986–1994 (wagon)
New Zealand: until 1996 (wagon)
South Africa: 1986–1995
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door convertible
3-door hatchback
4-door sedan
5-door station wagon
5-door hatchback
Engine 1.3 L E3 I4
1.5 L E5 I4
1.6 L B6 I4
1.6 L B6T I4

Laser (KC) and Meteor (GC)

Ford Laser (KC) GL 5-door
1985–1987 Ford Meteor (GC) GL wagon
1985–1987 Ford Meteor (GC) GL sedan

January 1985 saw the advent of the BF series Laser in Japan (KC/KE in Australia). This was the Laser's first major redesign. For the first time a diesel version was offered in Japan, as well as a factory two-door cabriolet, a DOHC 16-valve Sport version, and a potent 140 PS DOHC turbo model with full-time 4WD drivetrain (identical to the contemporary Mazda Familia BFMR). This added up to an extremely convoluted Japanese product line, which was later streamlined in 1987 with a mid-life model refresh (KE series in other markets). This refresh dropped E-series engines in favour of all-new B-series equivalents, poorer-selling variants were discontinued, and minor changes were made to exterior styling and interior trim.

For Australia, the range was known as the KC Laser and GC Meteor. All body styles were carried over, with the addition of a station wagon (badged as "Meteor", like the sedan) from 1986. A new "TX3" variant, which was at the top of the "Laser" models in specification level and designated "KC2", replaced the "Sport" variant from the KB series. Unlike the Sport, the TX3 was only available as a three-door (the Taiwanese TX3 was available in a five-door version only). The "L" and "GL" models were no longer available as a three-door. A notable change was the introduction of engines capable of running on 91 RON unleaded petrol (this became mandatory in Australia from 1986). The E5 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored engine that was optional on GL, and standard on Ghia in the KB series was replaced with the new B6 1.6-litre I4 SOHC. For the first time, electronic fuel injection was available as an option on Ghia models, and was standard on TX3 models. Buyers who ordered automatic transmission with this engine received an electronically controlled four-speed unit, which was quite advanced for a small car in 1985. The B3 I4 SOHC 1.3-litre engine was standard on the "L" (hatchback only, the wagon had a 1.6-litre engine). The 1.6-litre engine was standard on GL, Ghia and TX3, though some early GL models were equipped with a 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored.

The Laser was introduced in South Africa in 1986, as a hatchback, with the sedan version being sold as the Meteor. Replacing the Ford Escort, it was produced alongside the Mazda 323 by Samcor. In addition to the 1.3 L carb, 1.6 L carb and 1.6 L EFi engines, South African models of the Laser and Meteor also gained the Mazda FE-DOHC EFi 16-valve engine with 146 hp (109 kW; 148 PS) and 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) from 1991 to 1993. The KC/KE Laser and Meteor remained in production in South Africa until 1995, when the Escort was reintroduced. However, Ford introduced an entry-level model called the Tonic, a rebadged version of the locally manufactured BF series Mazda 323 hatchback, which was sold until 2003.

The KC/KE Laser wagon was also assembled in New Zealand, alongside its Mazda 323 equivalent, until 1996. The other body styles were presumably imported. When the plant closed in 1997, Ford dropped the Laser and introduced the Ford Escort hatchback and sedan, having already introduced the Escort wagon.

A version of the KC Laser, the Mercury Tracer, was marketed in the US and Canada, available as a hatchback and wagon only. The Tracer hatchback shared its bodyshell with its Laser counterpart, but the wagon was a distinct design based on the Laser hatchback, rather than the sedan, as was the case with the Meteor wagon. US versions of the Tracer were built in Mexico, whereas for the Canadian market, Ford opted to import the Mercury Tracer from Taiwan instead.

KC model range (Australia):

  • Laser L
  • Laser GL
  • Laser Ghia
  • Laser TX3
  • Meteor L (wagon only)
  • Meteor GL
  • Meteor Ghia

Laser (KE)

In October 1987, Ford introduced a facelift of the KC series, the KE. There were a number of notable changes with the introduction of the KE. The "Meteor" name was dropped from the sedan and wagon body styles, meaning they were now badged as "Laser", like the hatchback variants. The TX3 was also now available with a turbocharged engine and all-wheel-drive (AWD) as options. The TX3 Turbo with AWD is now very rare and highly sought after. The AWD was fully imported from Japan, while all other models in the Laser range were manufactured locally in the Sydney suburb of Homebush.

Ford Laser (KE) L 5-door
Ford Laser (KE) GL 5-door
1989–1990 Ford Laser (KE) GL wagon
1990–1994 Ford Laser (KE) GL wagon
Ford Laser (KE) Ghia 5-door
Ford Laser (KE) TX3 3-door

The KE is easy to distinguish from the earlier KC, by different grilles, headlights, tail lights, body-side mouldings, bonnet, front guards, and on some models, wheels. The dashboard and instrument cluster received new graphics, and the interior was available in slightly different colour shades to the KC. In mid-1989, in preparation for a new ADR (Australian Design Rule) to come into effect in 1990, all models were fitted with a high-mount rear stop lamp as standard. When the redesigned KF Laser was introduced in March 1990, the wagon continued in a sole GL specification, with minor upgrades until 1994, when Australian production of the Laser ceased.

The "L" is quite rare, as it was primarily aimed at the budget or fleet buyer. It had silver-painted 13" steel wheels, with no centre caps, a large analogue clock in the instrument cluster, no passenger-side rear-view mirror, vinyl interior trim, no body side mouldings, no rear windscreen wiper, and the folding rear seat was only one-piece. The stereo was also AM-only and had no cassette player. Air conditioning was not available. The only engine on offer was the 1.3-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (no automatic was available). The "L" wagon had the same level of trim, except the 1.3-litre engine was replaced with the 1.6-litre unit but still with four-speed transmission and no automatic available.

The "GL" was the most popular model. It featured the same silver-painted 13" steel wheels as the "L" but with satin chrome half-width centre caps (only covering the centre of the wheel), a digital clock on the top of the dashboard, cloth interior trim, grey body side mouldings, a rear windscreen wiper, grey tailgate and beaver panel garnishes and 50/50 split-fold rear seat. The stereo was an analogue-tuned AM/FM unit with a basic cassette player. Air conditioning was optional as a dealer-fit accessory. Power was provided by a 1.6-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic was optional). Sedan and wagon came standard with five-speed transmission.

The Ghia was the luxury model. It had black 14-inch steel wheels with full-size plastic wheel covers, power steering, body-coloured rear-view mirrors and bumpers, velour interior trim, tachometer, centre console with Ghia emblem, lockable glovebox, driver's seat with lumbar support and height adjust, storage drawer underneath the front passenger seat, full-size interior door trims, vanity mirror in passenger sunvisor, ticket holder in driver's sunvisor, felt interior hoodlining and sunvisors, rear headrests, additional warning lights in the instrument cluster, central locking with illuminated driver's door lock barrel, remote exterior mirrors, front door map pockets, front seatback pockets, additional reading lamps, chrome insert strips in the body side mouldings and bumpers, red tailgate garnish and orange beaver panel garnish. Air conditioning and power windows were optional. The stereo was a digitally tuned AM/FM unit, which featured a cassette player with Dolby enhanced sound. The 1.6-litre engine was fitted as standard, with EFI optional (standard on wagon), with either 5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic transmission (EFI automatic was 4-speed).

The TX3 was the Laser 'flagship'. It came standard with 14-inch satin-chrome alloy wheels, sports cloth interior trim, red insert strips in the body side mouldings and bumpers, black tailgate and beaver panel garnishes, semi-bucket seats with adjustable seat height, back and lumbar support, auto fade interior lamps, and all other Ghia appointings. EFI and A/C was standard, and automatic transmission was not available. The TX3 also had a unique front fascia with quad headlights and the parker lamps incorporated into the indicator lenses (L/GL/Ghia had the parkers inside the main headlight unit) and two-tone paint.

Ford Laser (KE) GL Redline 5-door
Ford Laser (KE) GL Livewire sedan

Halfway through KE production, Ford introduced two limited edition versions, called "Redline", and "Livewire". The Redline was based on the GL hatch, while the Livewire was based on the GL sedan and hatch. The Redline featured the TX3's alloy wheels, two-tone paint and red inserts in the body-side mouldings and bumpers, air conditioning, and a tachometer. The Livewire featured yellow inserts in the body side mouldings and bumpers, air conditioning, and a tachometer. Both models had 5-speed manual transmission (as opposed to the standard 4-speed) as standard, with 3-speed automatic transmission as an option.

KE model range;

  • Laser L – Hatch or wagon
  • Laser GL – Hatch, sedan or wagon
  • Laser Ghia – Hatch, sedan or wagon
  • Laser TX3
  • Laser TX3 Turbo
  • Laser TX3 Turbo 4WD

Engine specifications:

  • Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
  • Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Cabriolet' Japan models)
  • Mazda B6, 53 kW (71 hp) 1.6 L Carb 8V SOHC ('GL' and 'GHIA' models)
  • Mazda B6, 62 kW (83 hp) 1.6 L EFI 8V SOHC (option on 'GHIA' models and standard on 'TX3' models)
  • Mazda B6T, 100 kW (130 hp) 1.6 L EFI 16V DOHC Turbo ('TX3 Turbo' and 'Turbo 4WD' models)

Third generation (KF, KH; 1989–1994)

Third generation (KF, KH)
Ford Laser (KF) GL sedan
Production Japan: 1989–1994
Australia: 1990–1994
Body and chassis
Body style 3-door hatchback
4-door sedan
5-door hatchback
Ford Laser (KF) GL Livewire sedan (Australia)
Ford Laser (KH) Ghia 5-door (Australia)
Ford Laser (KF) TX3 4WD 3-door (Australia)
Ford Laser (KH) TX3 4WD 3-door (Australia)

The third generation BG series of 1989 to 1994, known as the KF and KH in Australia went on to be the most popular Laser sold in Japan, with the new "coupe" (liftback) version an instant success. Again, a DOHC turbo model with full-time 4WD was offered as a companion car to the Mazda Familia GT-X, now producing 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) from an increased displacement of 1.8 litres.

In Australian this model was released in 1990 as the KF series,updated in 1991 with the KH facelift. Local production of the Laser in Australia ceased in 1994 when Ford closed its plant at Homebush in Sydney, and imported the model from Japan.

This generation of Laser was also sold in Cyprus and Malta. This generation was the basis of later Escort models sold in North America from 1990 for the 1991 model year, which is not to be confused with the model of the same name sold in Europe. The Escort name was retained for the new model due to both strong brand equity on the Escort name as well as Chrysler already using the Laser name for the Plymouth Laser. The Escort wagon seen in North America during this generation was unique to that continent and was not part of the Laser ranges elsewhere.

Engine specifications (Australia):

  • Mazda B3, 47 kW (63 hp) 1.3 L carb, 16V SOHC (XL)
  • Mazda B6-2E, 64 kW (86 hp) 1.6 L carb, 16V SOHC (L, XL, GL, Livewire, Grand Slam, Indy, Collection, Horizon models)
  • Mazda B8, 76 kW (102 hp) 1.8 L fuel-injected, 16V SOHC (Ghia, S and GLi models)
  • Mazda BP DOHC, 92 kW (123 hp) 1.8 L fuel-injected, 16V DOHC (TX3 non-turbo models)
  • Mazda BPT, 117 kW (157 hp) 1.8 L fuel-injected, 16V DOHC Turbo (Turbo 4WD models)

Fourth generation (KJ, KL, KM; 1994–1998)

Fourth generation (KJ, KL, KM)
Ford Laser (KJ) Liata LXi 5-door (Australia)
Production 1994–1998
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
3-door hatchback
5-door hatchback
Engine 1.8 L I4
1.6 L I4
Ford Laser (KL) LXi sedan (Australia)
Ford Laser (KJ) Liata Ghia 5-door (Australia)

The fourth generation model was known as the BHA series in Japan. All sporting models were discontinued with the release of this model in the wake of poor sales and financial returns as Mazda scaled back operations and sought to rearrange market focus.

The Japanese built KJ Laser in Australia represented a major change in design; looking very different from the previous KH model. The new KJ Laser was introduced in 1994 with variants, facelifts (KL of 1996 and KM of 1997) and engine driveline improvements continuing up until the last of the KM series were released in 1998. The KJ Laser was the first Laser manufactured wholly in Japan, following Ford Australia's decision to close their Homebush plant. However, the KJ was disappointing in sales numbers mainly because of the smaller Festiva and other cheaper South Korean models to which many conservative buyers flocked.

This generation of Laser was also sold in Cyprus and Malta.

Engine Specifications:

  • Mazda B6, 80 kW, 1.6L, 16V, DOHC ('LXi' models)
  • Mazda BP, 92 kW, 1.8L, 16V, DOHC ('GLXi' and some 'LXi' models)

Fifth generation (KN, KQ; 1999–2002)

Fifth generation (KN, KQ)
Ford Laser (KN) Lidea hatchback (Japan)
Production 1999–2002
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door hatchback
Engine 1.8 L
2.0 L
1.6 L
1999–2001 Ford Laser (KN) LXi hatchback (Australia)
2001–2002 Ford Laser (KQ) LXi hatchback (Australia)
1999–2001 Ford Laser (KN) GLXi sedan (Australia)
2005 Ford Laser Lynx RS

Fifth generation "BJ" series models were renamed "Laser Lidea" in Japan, but popularity waned even further than the previous model. Japanese production ceased at the end of 2002, to be replaced by the imported Ford Focus, which was already sold there since 2000.

Released in Australia in May 1999, the KN Laser was the last new shape of Laser to be introduced. The model range was almost completely identical to the Mazda 323 on which it was based, which was the first time since the KE Laser. In February 2001, the KN received a minor facelift and became the KQ Laser. The big news with the KQ Laser was the addition of a 2.0-litre 4-cylinder engine for the new top-spec "SR2", which was also the first sports-oriented Laser variant in almost five years, since the unpopular Laser Lynx was discontinued in 1996. A new "SR" level of trim, which sat below SR2 was also introduced at this time. The KQ can be distinguished from the earlier KN, with a new grille with chrome moulding, new headlights, revised tail lights, different exterior colours, and slightly revised interiors. In March 2002, due to falling sales, Ford made one last attempt to restore the Laser's popularity to its former glory, by announcing minor upgrades to the SR2, and added three new exterior colours to the range, being "Goldrush", "Red Revenge", and "Electric Blue". Three engines were available, a 1.6-litre that was fitted to the LXi, a 1.8-litre that was fitted to the GLXi & SR, and a 2.0-litre that was exclusive to the SR2. Despite Laser having a good reputation with buyers in the marketplace, and many attempts from Ford to re-ignite interest in the model, it still failed to sell in reasonable numbers. In September 2002, Ford decided to discontinue the Laser in Australia, replacing it with the European-sourced Focus.

Model range;

  • Laser LXi (Sedan or hatch)
  • Laser GLXi (Sedan or hatch)
  • Laser XRI (Hatch only)nzs sr2 2.0l
  • Laser SR (Hatch only)
  • Laser SR2 (Hatch only)

Engine specifications:

  • Mazda 1.8 L FP-DE DOHC I4 91 kW (122 hp) and 163 N·m (120 ft·lbf)
  • Mazda 2.0 L FS, 97 kW (130 hp) and 183 N·m (135 ft·lbf)
  • Mazda 2.0 L FS-ZE (2001 Sport 20)
  • 1.6 L ZM-DE 72 kW (97 hp) and 145 N·m (107 ft·lbf)

This generation of Laser was also sold in New Zealand (1999–2003), Cyprus and Malta.

The Laser was replaced in most markets around the world by the European-sourced Focus, designated as one of Ford's "world cars". The Mazda 323 replacement, the Mazda3, is also based on the same platform as the Focus, continuing the tradition of both companies having products in this market segment around the world sharing common componentry. However, updated versions of the Laser known as the Laser, Laser Tierra (Thailand), Laser Lance, Laser Lynx RS, Lynx (Malaysia) and Tierra were marketed in Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Taiwan. These too were eventually replaced by the Focus.


  1. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  2. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  3. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  4. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  5. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Tony Davis, The New Car Buyers Guide, 1990/91 Edition, Universal Magazine, Melbourne, Australia
  7. ^ Sarne, Vernon (2012-06-27). "Ford makes 'business decision' to stop manufacturing cars in PH".  
  8. ^ Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1985). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 371.  
  9. ^ Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985, p. 424
  10. ^ 1981 Ford KA Laser Brochure – Mexico
  11. ^ "Mazda's woes reflected in boxy designs". JY&A Media. 1999-06-01. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  12. ^ "Which Ford where?". JY&A Media. 1999-06-01. Retrieved 2008-01-22.