|Observed by||Many countries|
|Type||Commercial, sometimes associated with religious Saint Joseph's Day|
|Significance||Honors fathers and fatherhood|
|Date||varies per country|
Father's Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. Many countries celebrate it on the third Sunday of June, though it is also celebrated widely on other days by many other countries. Father's Day was created to complement Mother's Day, a celebration that honors mothers and motherhood.
- 1 History
- 2 Spelling
- 3 Dates around the world
4 International history and traditions
- 4.1 Argentina
- 4.2 Aruba
- 4.3 Australia
- 4.4 Austria
- 4.5 Belgium
- 4.6 Brazil
- 4.7 Canada
- 4.8 People's Republic of China
- 4.9 Costa Rica
- 4.10 Croatia
- 4.11 Denmark
- 4.12 Estonia
- 4.13 Finland
- 4.14 Germany
- 4.15 Haiti
- 4.16 Hong Kong
- 4.17 Hungary
- 4.18 India
- 4.19 Indonesia
- 4.20 Ireland
- 4.21 Iran
- 4.22 Israel
- 4.23 Italy
- 4.24 Japan
- 4.25 Kenya
- 4.26 Korea
- 4.27 Latvia
- 4.28 Lithuania
- 4.29 Macau
- 4.30 Malaysia
- 4.31 Mexico
- 4.32 Seychelles
- 4.33 Nepal
- 4.34 Netherlands
- 4.35 New Zealand
- 4.36 Norway
- 4.37 Pakistan
- 4.38 Peru
- 4.39 Philippines
- 4.40 Poland
- 4.41 Portugal
- 4.42 Roman Catholic tradition
- 4.43 Romania
- 4.44 Russia
- 4.45 Singapore
- 4.46 South Africa
- 4.47 South Sudan
- 4.48 Spain
- 4.49 Sudan
- 4.50 Sweden
- 4.51 Taiwan
- 4.52 Thailand
- 4.53 Trinidad and Tobago
- 4.54 Turkey
- 4.55 United Arab Emirates
- 4.56 United Kingdom
- 4.57 United States
- 4.58 Ukraine
- 4.59 Venezuela
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
After the success obtained by Anna Jarvis with the promotion of Mother's Day in Grafton, West Virginia, the first observance of Father's Day was held on July 5, 1908, in Fairmont, West Virginia, in the Williams Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South, now known as Central United Methodist Church. Grace Golden Clayton was mourning the loss of her father when, on December 1907, the Monongah Mining Disaster in nearby Monongah killed 361 men, 250 of them fathers, leaving around a thousand fatherless children. Clayton suggested her pastor Robert Thomas Webb to honor all those fathers.
Clayton's event did not have repercussions outside of Fairmont for several reasons, among them: the city was overwhelmed by other events, the celebration was never promoted outside of the town itself and no proclamation was made in the City Council. Also two events overshadowed this event: the celebration of Independence Day July 4, 1908, with 12,000 attendants and several shows including a hot air balloon event, which took over the headlines in the following days, and the death of a 16-year-old girl on July 4. The local church and Council were overwhelmed and they did not even think of promoting the event, and it was not celebrated again for many years. The original sermon was not reproduced in press and it was lost. Finally, Clayton was a quiet person, who never promoted the event or even talked to other persons about it.
Clayton also may have been inspired by Anna Jarvis' crusade to establish Mother's Day; two months prior, Jarvis had held a celebration for her dead mother in Grafton, West Virginia, a town about 15 miles (24 km) away from Fairmont.
In addition to Father's Day, International Men's Day is celebrated in many countries on November 19 for men and boys who are not fathers.
In 1910, a Father's Day celebration was held in Spokane, Washington, at the YMCA by Sonora Smart Dodd, who was born in Arkansas. Its first celebration was in the Spokane YMCA on June 19, 1910. Her father, the Civil War veteran William Jackson Smart, was a single parent who raised his six children there. After hearing a sermon about Jarvis' Mother's Day in 1909 at Central Methodist Episcopal Church, she told her pastor that fathers should have a similar holiday honoring them. Although she initially suggested June 5, her father's birthday, the pastors did not have enough time to prepare their sermons, and the celebration was deferred to the third Sunday of June. Several local clergymen accepted the idea, and on 19 June 1910, the first Father's Day, "sermons honoring fathers were presented throughout the city."
However, in the 1920s, Dodd stopped promoting the celebration because she was studying in the Art Institute of Chicago, and it faded into relative obscurity, even in Spokane. In the 1930s, Dodd returned to Spokane and started promoting the celebration again, raising awareness at a national level. She had the help of those trade groups that would benefit most from the holiday, for example the manufacturers of ties, tobacco pipes, and any traditional present to fathers. By 1938 she had the help of the Father's Day Council, founded by the New York Associated Men's Wear Retailers to consolidate and systematize the commercial promotion. Americans resisted the holiday for its first few decades, viewing it as nothing more than an attempt by merchants to replicate the commercial success of Mother's Day, and newspapers frequently featured cynical and sarcastic attacks and jokes. However, said merchants remained resilient and even incorporated these attacks into their advertisements. By the mid-1980s, the Father's Council wrote that "(...) [Father's Day] has become a Second Christmas for all the men's gift-oriented industries."
A bill to accord national recognition of the holiday was introduced in Congress in 1913. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson went to Spokane to speak in a Father's Day celebration and wanted to make it official, but Congress resisted, fearing that it would become commercialized. US President Calvin Coolidge recommended in 1924 that the day be observed by the nation, but stopped short of issuing a national proclamation. Two earlier attempts to formally recognize the holiday had been defeated by Congress. In 1957, Maine Senator Margaret Chase Smith wrote a proposal accusing Congress of ignoring fathers for 40 years while honoring mothers, thus "[singling] out just one of our two parents". In 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued the first presidential proclamation honoring fathers, designating the third Sunday in June as Father's Day. Six years later, the day was made a permanent national holiday when President Richard Nixon signed it into law in 1972.
In 1912, there was a Father's Day celebration in Vancouver, Washington, suggested by Methodist pastor J. J. Berringer of the Irvingtom Methodist Church. They believed mistakenly that they had been the first to celebrate such a day. They followed a 1911 suggestion by the Portland Oregonian.
Harry C. Meek, member of Lions Clubs International, claimed that he had first the idea for Father's Day in 1915. Meek claimed that the third Sunday of June was chosen because it was his birthday (it would have been more natural to choose his father's birthday). The Lions Club has named him "Originator of Father's Day". Meek made many efforts to promote Father's Day and make it an official holiday.
In the United States, Dodd used the "Fathers' Day" spelling on her original petition for the holiday, but the spelling "Father's Day" was already used in 1913 when a bill was introduced to the U.S. Congress as the first attempt to establish the holiday, and it was still spelled the same way when its creator was commended in 2008 by the U.S. Congress.
Dates around the worldThe officially recognized date of Father's Day varies from country to country. This section lists some significant examples, in order of date of observance.
Second Sunday of May
May 11, 2014
Third Sunday of May
May 18, 2014
May 29, 2014
First Sunday of June
Jun 1, 2014
Second Sunday of June
Jun 8, 2014
Third Sunday of June
Jun 15, 2014
Last Sunday of June
Jun 29, 2014
Second Sunday of July
Jul 13, 2014
Last Sunday of July
Jul 27, 2014
Second Sunday of August
Aug 10, 2014
Last Monday of August
Aug 25, 2014
First Sunday of September
Sep 7, 2014
Second Sunday of September
Sep 14, 2014
Third Sunday of September
Sep 21, 2014
First Sunday of October
Oct 5, 2014
Second Sunday of November
Nov 9, 2014
Between 30 August and 30 September
June 16, 2011
*Officially, as the name suggests, the holiday celebrates people who are serving or were serving the Russian Armed Forces (both men and women). But the congratulations are traditionally, nationally accepted by all fathers, other adult men and male children as well.
**In China during Republican period prior to 1949, Father's Day on August 8 was first held in Shanghai in 1945.
International history and traditions
In a few Catholic countries, it is celebrated on the Feast of St. Joseph, and in western European countries, though the name often is changed.
Father's Day in Argentina is celebrated on the third Sunday of June, but there have been several attempts to change the date to August 24, to commemorate the day on which the "Father of the Nation" José de San Martín became a father.
In 1953, the proposal to celebrate Father's Day in all educational establishments on August 24, in honor of José de San Martín, was raised to the General Direction of Schools of Mendoza Province. The day was celebrated for the first time in 1958, on the third Sunday of June, but it was not included in the school calendars due to pressure from several groups.
Schools in the Mendoza Province continued to celebrate Father's Day on August 24, and, in 1982, the Provincial Governor passed a law declaring Father's Day in the province to be celebrated on that day.
In 2004, several proposals to change the date to August 24 were presented to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies as a single, unified project. After being approved, the project was passed to the Senate of Argentina for final review and approval. The Senate changed the proposed new date to the third Sunday of August, and scheduled the project for approval. However, the project was never addressed during the Senate's planned session, which caused its ultimate failure.
In Aruba, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
YMCA Victoria continues the tradition of honoring the role fathers, and father figures play in parenting through the annual awarding of Local Community Father of the Year in 32 municipalities in Victoria. The Father's Day Council of Victoria annually recognize fathers in the Father of the Year Award.
In Austria, Father's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of June and it is not a public holiday.
In Belgium, Father's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of June and it is not a public holiday.
In Brazil Father's Day (Dia dos Pais, in Portuguese) celebrated 3 months after Mother's Day, on the second Sunday of August. A publicist Sylvio Bhering in the mid-1950s selected the date in honor of Saint Joachim, patriarch of family (as well as the Catholic day of godfathers). It is not an official holiday (see Public holidays in Brazil), but it is widely observed and typically involves spending time with and giving gifts to one's father.
In Canada, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. Father's Day typically involves spending time with one's father or the father figures in one's life. Small family gatherings and the giving of gifts may be part of the festivities organized for Father's Day.
In People's Republic of China, the official Father's Day is celebrated on the 3rd Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. This date was set according to international norms.
Prior to the People's Republic; however, Father's Day was celebrated on August 8 when the Republic of China governed from Beijing. This is determined by the fact that the Eighth(ba) day of the Eighth(ba) month makes two "eight"s (八八, ba-ba), which sounds similar to the colloquial word for "daddy" (ba-ba，爸爸).
In Costa Rica, the Unidad Social Cristiana party presented a bill to change the celebration of Father's Day from the third Sunday of June to March 19, the day of Saint Joseph. That was in order to give tribute to this saint, who gave his name to the capital of the country San José, Costa Rica, and so family heads will be able to celebrate the Father's Day at the same time as the Feast of Saint Joseph the Worker. The official date is still the third Sunday of June.
In Germany, Father's Day (Vatertag) is celebrated differently from other parts of the world. It is always celebrated on Ascension Day (the Thursday forty days after Easter), which is a federal holiday. Regionally, it is also called men's day, Männertag, or gentlemen's day, Herrentag. It is tradition for groups of males (young and old but usually excluding pre-teenage boys) to do a hiking tour with one or more smaller wagons, Bollerwagen, pulled by manpower. In the wagons are wine or beer (according to region) and traditional regional food, Hausmannskost. Many men use this holiday as an opportunity to get drunk. According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, alcohol-related traffic accidents multiply by three on this day. The tradition of getting drunk is especially prevalent in Eastern Germany.
These traditions are probably rooted in  By the 20th century, alcohol consumption had become a major part of the tradition. Many people will take the following Friday off at work, and some schools are closed on that Friday as well; many people then use the resulting four-day long weekend for a short vacation.
In Haiti, Father's Day (Fête des peres) is celebrated on the last Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. Fathers are recognized & celebrated on this day with cards, gifts, breakfast, lunch brunch or early Sunday dinner; whether enjoying the day at the beach or mountains, spending family time or doing activities that make Dad happiest, it's all about Dad.
Children exclaim "Bonne Fête Papa!", while everyone wishes all fathers "Bonne fête des Pères". (Happy Father's Day)
In Hong Kong, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. (Sunday in Hong Kong is a public holiday)
In Hungary, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
There is 15 day remembrance of all ancestors called Pitru Paksha (Fortnight for Ancestors). There is also a remembrance day for deceased father (death anniversary for both mother and father). Father's Day is not a public holiday in India. In recent years, retailers have adapted to the holiday by promoting greeting cards and traditionally masculine gifts such as electronics and tools on third Sunday of June. Which is probably an imitation of the USA. Some schools and other children's programs commonly have activities to make Father's Day gifts in some large cities.
In Indonesia, Father's Day is celebrated on 12th of November
In Ireland, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
Father's day in Iran is celebrated on the 13th of Rajab, which is Imam Ali's birthday. Imam Ali is the first Shia Imam. This day is also an occasion to celebrate Manhood.
In Italy, according to the Roman Catholic tradition, fathers are celebrated on Saint Joseph's Day, commonly called Feast of Saint Joseph ("Festa di San Giuseppe"), March 19. It is not a public holiday.
In Japan, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
In Kenya, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
In Korea, Parents' day is celebrated on 8 May and is not a public holiday.
In Latvia, Father's Day (Tēvu diena) is celebrated on the second Sunday of September and is not a public holiday. In Latvia people didn't celebrate this day because of the USSR's influence with its own holidays. This day in Latvia was 'officially born' in 2008 when it was celebrated and marked in the calendar for the first time on 14 September(Second September Sunday) to promote the idea that man as the father must be satisfied and proud of his family and children, also, father is important to gratitude and loving words from his family for devoted to continuous altruistic concerns. Because this day is new to the country it doesn't have established any unique tradition, but people borrow ideas from other country's father's day traditions to congratulate fathers in Latvia.
In Lithuania, Father's Day (Tėvo diena) is celebrated on the first Sunday of June and is a public holiday.
In Macau, Father's Day (Dia do Pai) is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
In Mexico, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday.
In Seychelles, Father's Day is celebrated on the 16th of June and is not a public holiday.
The Newar population (natives of Kathmandu valley) in Nepal honors fathers on the day of Gokarna Aunsi, which occurs in late August or early September, depending on the year, since it depends on the lunar calendar. The Western-inspired celebration of Father's Day that was imported into the country is always celebrated on the same day as Gokarna Aunsi.
The rest of the population has also begun to celebrate the Gokarna Aunsi day It is commonly known as Abu ya Khwa Swoyegu in Nepal Bhasa or Buwaako mukh herne din (बुवाको मुख हेर्ने दिन) in Nepali (literally "day for looking at father’s face"). On the new moon day (Amavasya) it is traditional to pay respect to your deceased father; Hindus go to the Shiva temple of Gokarneswor Mahadev, in Gokarna, a suburb of Kathmandu while Buddhists go to Jan Bahal (Seto Machhendranath or white Tara) temple in Kathmandu.
Traditionally, in the Kathmandu Valley, the South-Western corner is reserved for women and women-related rituals, and the North-Eastern is for men and men-related rituals. The worship place for Mata Tirtha Aunsi ("Mother Pilgrimage New Moon") is located in Mata Tirtha in the South-Western half of the valley, while the worship place for Gokarna Aunsi is located in the North-Eastern half. This division is reflected in many aspects of the life in Kathmandu valley.
In the Netherlands, Father's Day (Vaderdag) is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. Traditionally, as on Mother's Day, fathers get breakfast in bed made by their children and families gather together and have dinner, usually at the grandparents’ house. In recent years, families also started having dinner out, and as on Mother's Day, it is one of the busiest days for restaurants. At school, children handcraft their present for their fathers. Consumer goods companies have all sorts of special offers for fathers: socks, ties, electronics, suits, and men's healthcare products.
In Norway, Father's day (Farsdag), is celebrated on the second Sunday of November. It is not a public holiday.
Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June. The Rutgers WPF launched a campaign titled ‘Greening Pakistan-Promoting Responsible Fatherhood’ on Father’s Day (Sunday 15, 2014) across Pakistan to promote active fatherhood and responsibility for the care and upbringing of children. Father's Day is not a public holiday in Pakistan.
In Peru, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. People usually give a present to their fathers and spend time with him mostly during a family meal.
In the Philippines, Father's Day is officially celebrated every first Monday of December, together with Mother's Day, but it is not a public holiday. It is more widely observed by the public on the 3rd Sunday of June perhaps due to American influence.
In Poland, Father's Day is celebrated on June 23.
Father's Day is celebrated on March 19 (see Roman Catholic tradition below) in Portugal. Father's Day is not a bank holiday.
Roman Catholic tradition
In the Roman Catholic tradition, Fathers are celebrated on Saint Joseph's Day, commonly called Feast of Saint Joseph, March 19, though in certain countries Father's Day has become a secular celebration. It is also common for Catholics to honor their "spiritual father," their parish priest, on Father's Day.
Beginning with 2010, in Romania, Father's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May and it is recognized officially by the state. Out of the 27 states in the European Union, it was the only one without an official Father's Day. Law 319/2009 made both Mother's Day and Father's Day official in Romania, and it was passed thanks to the campaigning from the Alliance Fighting Discrimination Against Fathers (TATA) Romanian Father's day for 2012 was celebrated on May 13.
Russia continues the Soviet Union tradition of celebrating Defender of the Fatherland Day instead of Father's Day. It is usually called "Men's Day" and it is considered the Russian equivalent of Father's Day.
In Singapore, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June but is not a public holiday.
In South Africa, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June.
In South Sudan, Father's Day is celebrated on the last Monday of August. The president Salva Kiir Mayardit proclaimed it before August 27, 2012. First celebrated on August 27, 2012. No Father's Day in South Sudan in 2011 due to independence.
In Sudan, Father's Day (عيد الأب), is celebrated on the twenty first of June.
In Sweden, Father's day (Fars dag), is celebrated on the second Sunday of November, but is not a public holiday.
In Taiwan, Father's Day is not an official holiday, but is widely observed on August 8, the eighth day of the eighth month of the year. In Mandarin Chinese, the pronunciation of both the number 8 and the month of August is bā. This pronunciation is very similar to the character "爸" "bà", which means "Pa" or "father". The Taiwanese, therefore, sometimes refer to August 8 as "Bābā Holiday" (爸爸節)or" (父親節).
In Thailand, Birthday of the king, is set as Father's Day. December 5 is the birthday of the current king, Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX). Traditionally, Thais celebrate by giving their father or grandfather a Canna flower (ดอกพุทธรักษา Dok Buddha Ruksa), which is considered a masculine flower; however, this is not as commonly practiced today. Thai people will wear yellow on this day to show respect for the king, because yellow is the Color of the day for Monday, the day King Bhumibol Adulyadej was born. Thais flood the Sanam Luang, a massive park in front of the palace, to watch the king give his annual speech, and often stay until the evening, when there is a national ceremony. Thais will light candles and show respect to the king by declaring their faith. This ceremony happens in almost every village in Thailand, and even overseas at Thai organizations.
It first gained nationwide popularity in the 1980s as part of a campaign by Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda to promote Thailand's royal family. Mother's Day is celebrated on the birthday of Queen Sirikit, August 12.
In Trinidad and Tobago, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday in June and is not a public holiday.
In Turkey, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday in June and is not a public holiday.
In the United Kingdom, Father's Day, celebrated on the third Sunday of June, is not a public holiday. Being a recent commercial invention imported from the USA, it has no historical or cultural relevance.
Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June. Typically, families gather to celebrate the father figures in their lives. In recent years, retailers have adapted to the holiday by promoting greeting cards and traditionally masculine gifts such as electronics and tools. Schools and other children's programs commonly have activities to make Father's Day gifts.
In Ukraine, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday in September.
In Venezuela, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. Traditionally, as on Mother's Day, families gather together and have lunch, usually at the grandparents’ house. In recent years, families also started having lunch out, and as on Mother’s Day, it is one of the busiest days for restaurants. At school, children handcraft their present for their fathers. Consumer goods companies have all sorts of special offers for fathers: electronics, suits, and men's healthcare products.
- Myers, 1972, p. 185
Butler, Joey. "Father’s Day has Methodist ties". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
On July 5, 1908, a Father's Day sermon was preached at Williams Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, South, thanks to the efforts of Grace Golden Clayton. In December 1907, a terrible mine explosion in nearby Monongah claimed the lives of more than 360 men. Most of them had families, and the tragedy left 1,000 children fatherless. Clayton was distraught by the thought of all those children growing up without a father's guidance, and wanted to do something to honor the importance of fatherhood. She asked her pastor to set aside a special day to commemorate fathers. She chose the Sunday closest to the birthday of her late father, also a Methodist preacher. Clayton chose the Sunday nearest to the birthday of her father, Methodist minister Fletcher Golden.
- Smith, Vicki (June 15, 2003). "The first Father's Day".
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- Reverend D.D. Meighen (June 5, 1908). "The First Father's Day Service occurred in Fairmont, West Virginia, on July 5, 1908, at Williams Memorial Methodist Espiscopal Church". Retrieved 2010-09-04.
- Schmidt, 1997, p. 276.
- "Father's Day (United States)". Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- Larossa, 1997. pp. 172–173
Butler, Joey. "Father’s Day has Methodist ties". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
In 1909 in Spokane, Wash., Sonora Smart Dodd listened to a Mother's Day sermon at Central Methodist Episcopal Church. Dodd's own mother had died 11 years earlier, and her father had raised their six children alone. Dodd felt moved to honor her father, and fathers everywhere, with a special day as well. She proposed her idea to local religious leaders, and gained wide acceptance. June 19, 1910, was designated as the first Father's Day, and sermons honoring fathers were presented throughout the city.
- Schmidt, 1997. p. 278
- Schmidt, 1997. p. 279
- Schmidt, 1997. pp. 275, 283–284, 286, 288, 290, 292
- Schmidt, 1997. p. 275,288–290
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- Schmidt, 1997. p. 283–290
- Schmidt, 1997. p. 286
"Father to have his day". The New York Times. October 3, 1913.
(...) a bill providing that "The first Sunday in June in each and every year hereafter be designated as Father's Day (...)"
- Myers, 1972. pp. 186–187
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Asamblea Legislativa de la República de El Salvador. 08 de mayo de 1969(Spanish)
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la presión de diversos grupos determinó el “olvido” de incluir esta disposición en el calendario escolar a partir de 1957, y la omisión fue aprovechada para imponer el tercer domingo de junio como el Día del Padre norteamericano, en homenaje a mister John Bruce Dodd (...) instituir el día 24 de agosto como el destinado a la celebración del Día del Padre en homenaje al general José de San Martín, padre de la patria.
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- Staff report (June 15, 2014), "Father’s Day tomorrow",
- Sehrish Wasif (June 16, 2013), "Celebrating Father’s Day: Honouring Pakistan’s courageous fathers",
- "Proclamation No. 58, s. 1998".
- Kerry Tilby (June 2007). "Father's Day". Kiwi Families. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- "Catholics Come Home to launch organization to encourage priests". Catholic News Agency. April 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
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- Myers, Robert J.; the editors of Hallmark Cards (1972). Celebrations: The Complete Book of American Holidays. Doubleday & Company. pp. 184–187.
- Schmidt, Leigh Eric (1997). Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays. Princeton University Press. pp. 275–292.
- Larossa, Ralph (1997). The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History. University of Chicago Press. pp. 90, 170–192.