European Tour

European Tour

PGA European Tour
Current season or competition:
2013 European Tour
Sport Golf
Founded 1972
Director Neil Coles
Countries Based in Europe.
Schedule includes events outside Europe,
in Asia, Africa, and the United States.
Most titles Spain Seve Ballesteros (50)
TV partner(s) Sky Sports
Official website

The PGA European Tour is an organization which operates the three leading men's professional golf tours in Europe: the elite European Tour, the European Seniors Tour and the developmental Challenge Tour. Its headquarters are at Wentworth Club in Virginia Water, Surrey, England. The European Tour is the primary golf tour in Europe. The European Tour was established by the British-based Professional Golfers' Association, and responsibility was transferred to an independent PGA European Tour organisation in 1984.[1] Most events on the PGA European Tour's three tours are held in Europe, but in recent years an increasing number have been held in other parts of the world outside of North America.

The PGA European Tour is a golfer-controlled organisation whose primary purpose is to maximise the income of tournament golfers. It is a company limited by guarantee and is run by a professional staff but controlled by its playing members via a board of directors composed of 12 elected past and present tour players and a tournament committee of 14 current players. As of 2007, the chairman of the board is Neil Coles and the chairman of the tournament committee is Thomas Bjørn.

The European-based events on the European Tour are nearly all played in Western Europe and the most lucrative of them take place in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, France and Spain.

The PGA European Tour also conducts the Ryder Cup Matches in cooperation with the PGA of America.


Professional golf began in Europe, specifically in Scotland. The first professionals were clubmakers and greenkeepers who also taught golf to the wealthy men who could afford to play the game (early handmade equipment was expensive) and played "challenge matches" against one another for small purses. The first multi-competitor stroke play tournament was The Open Championship, which was introduced in 1860. That year it was for professionals only, and it attracted a field of eight. The following year, amateurs were permitted to enter. In contrast to many other sports which originated in the United Kingdom, the amateur-professional divide never created major problems in golf, at least at the elite competitive level.

Over the few decades following the creation of The Open Championship, the number of golf tournaments with prize money increased slowly but steadily. Most were in the United Kingdom, but there were also several "national opens" in various countries of Continental Europe. However, for many decades it remained difficult if not impossible for golfers to earn a living from prize money alone. From 1901 the British professionals were represented by The Professional Golfers' Association, and it was this body that ultimately created the European Tour.

By the post-World War II period prize money was becoming more significant, encouraged by the introduction of television coverage. However, each event was still organised separately by a golf club or association, or a commercial promoter. In the U.S. a formal PGA Tour had existed since the 1930s, and in 1972 The Professional Golfers' Association introduced the PGA European Tour. In its early years the season ran for six months from April to October, and was based entirely in Europe, mainly in Great Britain and Ireland. For example, the 1972 season consisted of 20 tournaments, of which 12 were in the United Kingdom and one was in Ireland. Of the seven events in Continental Europe, six were "national opens", namely the Dutch, German, Italian, French, Spanish and Swiss Opens, with the seventh being the Madrid Open.

Over the next three decades the tour gradually lengthened and globalised. The first event held outside of Europe was the 1982 Tunisian Open.[1] That year, there were 27 tournaments and the season stretched into November for the first time. In 1984, the PGA European Tour became independent of The Professional Golfers' Association.

The European Tour has always been sensitive to the risk that its best players will leave to play on the PGA Tour for many reasons. The PGA Tour usually offers higher purses and European players want to increase their chances of glory in the three majors played in the U.S. by playing on more U.S.-style courses to acclimate themselves. In an attempt to counter this phenomenon, the European Tour introduced the "Volvo Bonus Pool" in 1988. This was extra prize money which was distributed at the end of the season to the most successful players of the year—but only golfers who had played in a high number of the European Tour's events could receive a share. This system continued until 1998, after which renewed emphasis was placed on maximising prize money in individual tournaments.

In 1989, the tour visited Asia for the first time for the Dubai Desert Classic. By 1990, there were 38 events on the schedule, including 37 in Europe, and the start of the season had moved up to February. A first visit to East Asia for the Tour occurred at the 1992 Johnnie Walker Classic in Bangkok. This has since proven to be one of the most notable initiatives in the history of the tour, as East Asia is becoming almost its second home. Shortly afterwards the tour also made its debut in the former Soviet Bloc at the 1994 Czech Open, but much less has come of this development as participation in golf in the former Soviet region remains low and sponsors there are unable to compete financially with their Western European rivals for the limited number of slots available on the main tour each summer. However, the second-tier Challenge Tour has visited Central and Eastern Europe somewhat more frequently. In 1995, the European Tour began a policy of co-sanctioning tournaments with other PGA Tours, by endorsing the South African PGA Championship on the Southern African Tour (now the Sunshine Tour). This policy was extended to the PGA Tour of Australasia in 1996, and most extensively to the Asian Tour.

There is no overall governing body in the worldwide sport of golf. While the golf authorities in the various parts of the world cooperate harmoniously overall, there is still some rivalry. The European Tour is very self-conscious about its position relative to the PGA Tour, but the two have also steadily formed a partnership. In 1998, the European Tour added the three U.S. majors — the Masters Tournament, the PGA Championship and the U.S. Open — to its official schedule. The leading Europeans had all been competing in them for many years, but now their prize money counted towards the European Tour Order of Merit, which sometimes made a great deal of difference to the end-of-season rankings. The following year three of the current four individual World Golf Championships, also usually played in America, and also offering far more prize money than most European events, were established and added to the European Tour schedule.

Since the minimum number of events that a player must play to retain membership of the European Tour has long been eleven, this meant that international players could become members of the tour by playing just four events on it apart from the majors and the World Golf Championships, which all elite players enter in any case. Players such as Ernie Els and Retief Goosen have taken advantage of this to play the PGA and European Tours concurrently and even Tiger Woods, who has sometimes played nine of the necessary eleven events, once suggested that he might enter the extra four required so that he could win the European Order of Merit, although he has yet to do so. For the 2009 season, the number of minimum events required for members was increased to twelve; this coincided with the elevation of the HSBC Champions, previously a European Tour event co-sanctioned by three other tours, to World Golf Championships status.

Status and prize money

It is beyond dispute that the European Tour is the second most important tour in men's golf, behind the PGA Tour and well ahead of all the others. What is harder to define is its standing relative to the PGA Tour and whether that has risen or fallen in recent years.

At the start of 2006 five of the top 10 players in the Official World Golf Ranking were full members of the European Tour, namely Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Sergio García, Adam Scott and Colin Montgomerie. Two years later, at the start of 2008, the number of full European Tour members in the top 10 remained at five, namely Els, Justin Rose, Scott, Pádraig Harrington, and Vijay Singh. At the start of 2009, that number increased to seven—García, Harrington, Singh, Robert Karlsson, Henrik Stenson, Els, and Lee Westwood. At the start of 2010, that number went back to five, with Westwood, Harrington, and Stenson joined by Paul Casey and Rory McIlroy. Apart from McIlroy, who was only 20 years old at the end of 2009, and longtime European Tour veterans Montgomerie and Karlsson, all of the named golfers are also members of the PGA Tour, and moved to it as their main or joint main tour after playing in Europe first. Singh had largely abandoned the European Tour for the PGA Tour in the late 1990s, but rejoined the European Tour in 2006. 2010 saw much success for European Tour members, including major wins for Graeme McDowell, Louis Oosthuizen and Martin Kaymer, and a victory in the 2010 Ryder Cup. Lee Westwood ended the year as world number one. As of 24 January 2011, the no. 1 and 2 positions in the golf rankings are occupied by Europeans (Westwood and Kaymer), for the first time in 18 years. Westwood, Kaymer, no. 4. McDowell and no 7. McIlroy all see the European Tour as their primary tour.

The European Tour is traditionally the first overseas move for outstanding players from non-European countries in the Commonwealth, long a major source for elite golfers, such as Greg Norman and Nick Price. These players tended to move to the PGA Tour as a second step. However, lately the European Tour is losing this role as more Commonwealth golfers choose to move directly to the U.S. There is also a current trend for young UK golfers to play primarily on the PGA Tour. In some cases, such as that of Luke Donald, this is a natural consequence after completing a golf scholarship at a U.S. university. Such scholarships are not available (or even legal) in Europe.

When Continental Europe produced its first global golf stars in the 1970s, such as Seve Ballesteros, and especially when Europe began to notch wins over the United States in the Ryder Cup in the mid 1980s, there was widespread optimism about the future standing of the European Tour relative to the PGA Tour. This has ebbed away as several major European countries, such as Germany and Italy, have not produced high-ranked golfers on a regular basis as was formerly anticipated. Nonetheless, the number of European countries which have produced winners on the European Tour has increased steadily, with notable golfing depth developing in the Scandinavian countries. The latter point is illustrated by developments in 2008 and 2009. Not only did the 2008 end-of-year world top 10 feature two Swedes (Karlsson and Stenson), but five other Swedes won events on either the PGA Tour or European Tour in 2008; Karlsson and Stenson were joined by the Dane Søren Hansen on Team Europe at the 2008 Ryder Cup; and the season-ending Volvo Masters was won in 2008 by Hansen's countryman Søren Kjeldsen. In 2009, Karlsson dropped out of the top 10 and Stenson remained. Nine Scandinavians won events on either the European or PGA Tour in 2009; four of them—Dane Jeppe Huldahl and Swedes Oskar Henningsson, Christian Nilsson, and Alexander Norén—were first-time European Tour winners.

The total 2005 prize fund on the PGA Tour is approximately $250 million. On the European Tour, it is over £80 million or around $150 million, around 60 percent of what the American tour offers. However, both of these totals include around $50 million in prize money for seven co-sanctioned events, namely the majors and the World Golf Championships. Excluding these, the European Tour offers approximately 50 percent as much prize money as the PGA Tour. It can be argued that since PGA Tour members have had far more wins and top 10 finishes in the seven co-sanctioned events in recent years, the 50 percent figure is a better reflection of the actual financial resources of the European Tour relative to its rival.

Leaving aside the majors and World Golf Championship events, which are the most lucrative on the schedule, there is still much more variation in prize funds on the European Tour than on the PGA Tour. Two key tiers can be identified: those not far away from a million Euro, and those in the three to four million Euro range. Most of the former group are for co-sponsored events outside Europe and most of the latter are for events staged in Europe. At the January 2010 exchange rate of roughly USD 1.40 per euro, the richer group of European tournaments offers purses approaching and sometimes surpassing those of typical "regular" events on the PGA Tour, with their 2010 prize funds of $5–6 million.

The prize funds of many European Tour events have increased rapidly since the late 1990s. Nonetheless, in 2005, an increasing amount of media attention was given to the perceived failure of the European Tour to attract as many leading players to its events as in the recent past. It is unclear how this contradiction between the Tour's apparently weakening on-course position and its seemingly strong sponsorship position will play out in the future. The role of Asia may be crucial; in November 2005 a new European Tour-sanctioned event in China called the HSBC Champions tournament was played for the first time. With a purse of $5 million, it was by far the richest tournament ever played in Asia. It now has a purse of $7 million, and became a World Golf Championships event starting in 2009.

In a decision that, according to the Associated Press, "reflects the changing nature of a global game", one of the top young American amateurs, Peter Uihlein, announced in December 2011 that he would not return for his final semester at Oklahoma State University and would begin professional play in Europe the following month—both through sponsor's exemptions on the main tour and on the developmental Challenge Tour.[2]

The structure of the European Tour season

Outline of the season

From 2000 until 2011 the season has actually started late in the previous calendar year, but the seasons are still named by calendar year, rather than for example 2005–06, which would reflect the actual span of play. All of the events up until late March take place outside of Europe, with most of these being co-sanctioned with other tours. From then on, the tour plays mainly in Europe, and the events in its home continent generally have higher prize money than those held elsewhere, excluding the major championships, which were added to the tour schedule in 1998; three individual World Golf Championships events, added the following year, most of which take place in the United States; and the HSBC Champions, elevated to World Golf Championships status in 2009.

From 2012, the European Tour reverted to seasons coinciding with the calendar year.

There are generally only minor variations in the overall pattern from one year to the next. Occasionally tournaments change venue, and quite often change name, particularly when they get a new sponsor, but the principal events have fixed and traditional places in the schedule, and this determines the rhythm of the season.

Race to Dubai

In 2009, the Order of Merit was replaced by The Race To Dubai, with a bonus pool of $7.5 million[3] (originally $10 million) to be distributed among the top 15 players at the end of the season, of which the winner takes $1.5 million[3] (originally $2 million). The new name reflects the addition of a new season ending tournament, the Dubai World Championship, held at the end of November in Dubai. The tournament also has a $7.5 million prize fund[3] (originally $10 million), and will be contested by the leading 60 players in the race following the seasons penultimate event, the Hong Kong Open. The winner of the Race To Dubai also receives a ten-year European Tour exemption, while the winner of the Dubai World Championship tournament receives a five-year European Tour exemption.[4][5][6][7] The reduction in prize money, announced in September 2009,[3] was due to the global economic downturn.

2013 season

Main article: 2013 European Tour

Order of Merit winners

The European Tour's money list was known as the "Order of Merit" until 2009, when it was replaced by the Race to Dubai. It is calculated in euro, although around half of the events have prize funds which are fixed in other currencies, mainly pounds sterling or U.S. dollars. In these instances, the amounts are converted into euro at the exchange rate for the week that the tournament is played. The winner of the Order of Merit receives the Harry Vardon Trophy, not to be confused with the Vardon Trophy awarded by the PGA of America.

Year Race to Dubai leader Country Earnings ()
2012 Rory McIlroy  Northern Ireland 5,519,118
2011 Luke Donald  England 5,323,400
2010 Martin Kaymer  Germany 4,461,011
2009 Lee Westwood (2/2)  England 4,237,762
Year Order of Merit leader Country Earnings (€)
2008 Robert Karlsson  Sweden 2,732,748
2007 Justin Rose  England 2,944,945
2006 Pádraig Harrington  Ireland 2,489,337
2005 Colin Montgomerie (8/8)  Scotland 2,794,223
2004 Ernie Els (2/2)  South Africa 4,061,905
2003 Ernie Els (1/2)  South Africa 2,975,374
2002 Retief Goosen (2/2)  South Africa 2,360,128
2001 Retief Goosen (1/2)  South Africa 2,862,806
2000 Lee Westwood (1/2)  England 3,125,147
1999 Colin Montgomerie (7/8)  Scotland 1,822,880
Year Order of Merit leader Country Earnings (£)
1998 Colin Montgomerie (6/8)  Scotland 993,077
1997 Colin Montgomerie (5/8)  Scotland 798,948
1996 Colin Montgomerie (4/8)  Scotland 875,146
1995 Colin Montgomerie (3/8)  Scotland 835,051
1994 Colin Montgomerie (2/8)  Scotland 762,720
1993 Colin Montgomerie (1/8)  Scotland 613,683
1992 Nick Faldo (2/2)  England 708,522
1991 Seve Ballesteros (6/6)  Spain 545,354
1990 Ian Woosnam (2/2)  Wales 574,166
1989 Ronan Rafferty  Northern Ireland 400,311
1988 Seve Ballesteros (5/6)  Spain 451,560
1987 Ian Woosnam (1/2)  Wales 253,717
1986 Seve Ballesteros (4/6)  Spain 242,209
1985 Sandy Lyle (3/3)  Scotland 162,553
1984 Bernhard Langer (2/2)  West Germany 139,344
Year Official Money List leader Country Earnings (£)
1983 Nick Faldo (1/2)  England 119,416
1982 Greg Norman  Australia 66,406
1981 Bernhard Langer (1/2)  West Germany 81,036
1980 Sandy Lyle (2/3)  Scotland 66,060
Year Order of Merit leader Country Earnings (£)
1979 Sandy Lyle (1/3)  Scotland 49,233
1978 Seve Ballesteros (3/6)  Spain 54,348
1977 Seve Ballesteros (2/6)  Spain 46,436
1976 Seve Ballesteros (1/6)  Spain 39,504
1975 Dale Hayes  South Africa 20,508

Before 1975 the Order of Merit was based on a points system, so it was not necessarily headed by the golfer who won the most money.

Year Order of Merit leader Country Earnings (£) Leading money winner Country Earnings (£)
1974 Peter Oosterhuis (4/4)  England 32,127 Peter Oosterhuis  England 32,127
1973 Peter Oosterhuis (3/4)  England 17,455 Tony Jacklin  England 24,840
1972 Peter Oosterhuis (2/4)  England 18,525 Bob Charles  New Zealand 18,538
1971 Peter Oosterhuis (1/4)  England 9,270 Gary Player  South Africa 11,281

Multiple winners - Order of Merit

Rank Player Country Wins Last Win First Win
1 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland 8 2005 1993
2 Seve Ballesteros  Spain 6 1991 1976
3 Peter Oosterhuis  England 4 1974 1971
4 Sandy Lyle  Scotland 3 1985 1979
T5 Lee Westwood  England 2 2009 2000
Ernie Els  South Africa 2 2004 2003
Retief Goosen  South Africa 2 2002 2001
Nick Faldo  England 2 1992 1983
Ian Woosnam  Wales 2 1990 1987
Bernhard Langer  West Germany 2 1984 1981

The European Tour officially began in 1972, but there is a money list for 1971 on the Tour's official site and unofficial or semi-official money lists existed before that. For full Order of Merit details for each season from 1971 onwards, see here [1].

Leading career money winners

The table below shows the top 10 career money leaders on the European Tour after the 2012 season. Due to increases in prize money over the years, it is dominated by current players. The figures are not the players' complete career earnings as most of them have earned millions more on other tours (especially the PGA Tour) or from non-tour events. In addition, elite golfers often earn several times as much from endorsements and golf-related business interests as they do from prize money.

Rank Player Country Prize money ()
1 Ernie Els  South Africa 29,251,644
2 Lee Westwood  England 28,559,639
3 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland 24,468,539
4 Pádraig Harrington  Ireland 23,680,639
5 Retief Goosen  South Africa 21,828,884
6 Miguel Ángel Jiménez  Spain 20,251,977
7 Darren Clarke  Northern Ireland 19,992,372
8 Ian Poulter  England 18,547,770
9 Sergio García  Spain 18,056,253
10 Thomas Bjørn  Denmark 16,950,490

As of 23 June 2013

There is a list of the top 100 on the European Tour's website here [2].

Golfers and rookies of the year

The European Tour's Sir Henry Cotton Rookie of the Year award is named after the English three-time Open Champion Sir Henry Cotton. The winner is now selected by a panel comprising the PGA European Tour, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St.Andrews and the Association of Golf Writers. It is usually given to the rookie who places highest on the Order of Merit, but this is not always the case. The award predates the founding of the formal tour in 1972. There have been five years when no award was made.

Year Golfer of the Year Country Rookie of the Year Country
2012 Rory McIlroy  Northern Ireland Ricardo Santos  Portugal
2011 Luke Donald  England Tom Lewis  England
2010 Martin Kaymer &
Graeme McDowell (shared)
 Northern Ireland
Matteo Manassero  Italy
2009 Lee Westwood  England Chris Wood  England
2008 Pádraig Harrington  Ireland Pablo Larrazábal  Spain
2007 Pádraig Harrington  Ireland Martin Kaymer  Germany
2006 Paul Casey  England Marc Warren  Scotland
2005 Michael Campbell  New Zealand Gonzalo Fernández-Castaño  Spain
2004 Vijay Singh  Fiji Scott Drummond  Scotland
2003 Ernie Els  South Africa Peter Lawrie  Ireland
2002 Ernie Els  South Africa Nick Dougherty  England
2001 Retief Goosen  South Africa Paul Casey  England
2000 Lee Westwood  England Ian Poulter  England
1999 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland Sergio García  Spain
1998 Lee Westwood  England Olivier Edmond  France
1997 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland Scott Henderson  Scotland
1996 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland Thomas Bjørn  Denmark
1995 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland Jarmo Sandelin  Sweden
1994 Ernie Els  South Africa Jonathan Lomas  England
1993 Bernhard Langer  Germany Gary Orr  Scotland
1992 Nick Faldo  England Jim Payne  England
1991 Seve Ballesteros  Spain Per-Ulrik Johansson  Sweden
1990 Nick Faldo  England Russell Claydon  England
1989 Nick Faldo  England Paul Broadhurst  England
1988 Seve Ballesteros  Spain Colin Montgomerie  Scotland
1987 Ian Woosnam  Wales Peter Baker  England
1986 Seve Ballesteros  Spain José María Olazábal  Spain
1985 Bernhard Langer  West Germany Paul Thomas  Wales
1984 Philip Parkin  Wales
1983 Grant Turner  England
1982 Gordon Brand Jnr  Scotland
1981 Jeremy Bennett  England
1980 Paul Hoad  England
1979 Mike Miller  Scotland
1978 Sandy Lyle  Scotland
1977 Nick Faldo  England
1976 Mark James  England
1975 No award
1974 Carl Mason  England
1973 Pip Elson  England
1972 Sam Torrance  Scotland
1971 David Llewellyn  Wales
1970 Stuart Brown  England
1969 Peter Oosterhuis  England
1968 Bernard Gallacher  Scotland
1967 No award
1966 Robin Liddle  Scotland
1965 No award
1964 No award
1963 Tony Jacklin  England
1962 No award
1961 Alex Caygill  England
1960 Tommy Goodwin  England

Multiple winners - Golfer of the Year

Rank Player Country Wins Last Win First Win
1 Colin Montgomerie  Scotland 4 1999 1995
T2 Lee Westwood  England 3 2009 1998
Ernie Els  South Africa 3 2003 1994
Nick Faldo  England 3 1992 1989
Seve Ballesteros  Spain 3 1991 1986
T6 Pádraig Harrington  Ireland 2 2008 2007
Bernhard Langer  Germany 2 1993 1985

See also


External links

  • Official site