Eurabia

Eurabia

Eurabia is a political neologism.[2] The concept was coined by Bat Ye'or in the early 2000s. Bat Ye'Or (pen name of Gisele Littman) claims a conspiracy of Europe, allegedly led by France and Arab powers, to Islamise and Arabise Europe, thereby weakening its existing culture and undermining an alleged previous alignment with the U.S. and Israel.[3][4]

The term has gained some public interest and has been used and discussed across a wide range of the political spectrum, including far-right activists,[5] [6] The narrative grew important in expressing Islamophobic sentiments and was used by movements like Stop Islamisation of Europe. It gained renewed interest after the 9/11 events and the use of the term by 2011 Norway attacker Anders Behring Breivik. It is as well a part of classical Anti-Europeanism, a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism[7] which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or, as is the case here, both.

Contents

  • Basic narrative 1
  • Impact 2
  • Shortcomings 3
    • Eurafrika 3.1
    • Demography 3.2
  • Spread of conspiracies and further influences 4
    • Post-9/11 significance 4.1
    • 2011 Norway attacks 4.2
    • U.S. politics 4.3
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • External links 7

Basic narrative

In Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, Bat Ye'or claims that Eurabia is the result of the Euro-Arab Dialogue, based on an allegedly French-led European policy intended to increase European power against the United States by aligning its interests with those of the Arab countries. During the 1973 oil crisis, the European Economic Community (predecessor of the European Union), had entered into the Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD) with the Arab League.[8] Ye'or claims it as a primary cause of alleged European hostility to Israel, referring to joint Euro-Arab foreign policies that she characterises as anti-American and anti-Zionist.[9] Ye'or purported a close connection of a Eurabia conspiracy and used the term "dhimmitude", denoting alleged "western subjection to Islam".[10] The term itself is based on a newsletter published in the 1970s by the Comité européen de coordination des associations d'amitié avec le monde Arabe, a Euro-Arab friendship committee.[1][9]

Bat Ye'Or's Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis was the first print publication in the Eurabia genre,[10] which has since grown to a number of titles,[11][12] including Melanie Phillips' Londonistan,[13] Oriana Fallaci's The Force of Reason,[14] and Bruce Bawer's While Europe Slept.[15] The term is often used by the writers (Fallaci,[16][17] Steyn)[18][19][20] and several web sites, many of them affiliated with the counterjihad movement.[21] Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen's Defeating Eurabia[22] earned him a high standing among far-right extremists.[23]

An important part of the narrative is the idea of a demographic threat, the fear that, at some time in the future, Islam will take over Europe.[24] or as Bernard Lewis put it, "Europe will be Islamic by the end of the century."[25][26] Walter Laqueur's The Last Days of Europe [27] is quoted often among the Eurabia literature; however, he modified his statements later.

Impact

The slogan has become a basic theme in the European extremist and populist right and expresses as well a significant strategy change. This has led to the adoption of political positions that were previously considered fringe or third rail on either side. The main anti-Islamic theme has also penetrated into mainstream European politics,[5] for instance in the case of Dutch populist Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders:

This government is enthusiastically co-operating with the Islamisation of the Netherlands. In all of Europe the elite opens the floodgates wide. In only a little while, one in five people in the European Union will be Muslim. Good news for this multiculti-government that views bowing to the horrors of Allah as its most important task. Good news for the CDA : C-D-A, in the meanwhile stands for Christians Serve Allah (Christenen Dienen Allah).[28]

Significant alterations in the asserted positions of the political (far) right include a sudden focus on the rights of women and homosexuals.[5][29][30] The conservative historian Nigel Ferguson referred to the concept, taken as the potential future Islamisation of Europe based on mere demographic facts and a supposed ideational lack of the continent.[31]

While immigrants are being deemed a threat, in the postwar 1940s period, the British extreme right – in particular Fascist politician Oswald Mosley– were rather outspoken (see the Union Movement and the Europe a Nation slogan) in favour of a stronger integration of Britain with Europe and, using their own interpretation of the Eurafrika concept, Africa.[32][33]

Shortcomings

Mainland territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession. Against the Eurabia narrative, the largest Muslim territorium, Algeria, was included on behalf of strong French lobbying in the early stages but actually left 1962

Some [6][35] The theme was treated in studies of rightist extremism[5] and Middle East Politics.[36] This changed after the 2011 Norway attacks, which resulted in the publication of several works specifically treating the Eurabia conspiracy theories.[10][37] Janne Haaland Matlary went as far as to say that "it is poor use of time to analyse something so primitive".[38]

Eurafrika

A vision of a stronger cooperation of Europe and its African or mediterranean neighbours was neither new nor especially endangering. The elder concepts of '

External links

  1. ^ a b "Eurabia (item listing)". Worldcat. Retrieved May 11, 2012. , OCLC 5966570
  2. ^ The word is a portmanteau of Europe and Arabia. It was first used as a name for the newsletter of a Euro-Arab friendship committee in the 1970s.[1] See wikt:Eurabia and Eurabia (newsletter).
  3. ^ a b  
  4. ^ a b c Marján, Attila; André Sapir (2010). Europe's Destiny. Baltimore, MD:  
  5. ^ a b c d e f Zúquete, José Pedro (October 2008). "The European Extreme Right and Islam: New directions?".  
  6. ^ a b "Eurabiske vers" [Eurabian verses] (in Norwegian).  
  7. ^ Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, Patrick Chamorel No 25, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers from European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS) 2004
  8. ^ "Euro-Arab dialogue". MEDEA.  [4]
  9. ^ a b c   English translation
  10. ^ a b c d Fekete, Liz (2012). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class 53 (3): 30–47.  
  11. ^ a b  
  12. ^ a b  
  13. ^ Melanie Phillips (2006).  
  14. ^  
  15. ^  
  16. ^  
  17. ^ Dopo Londra (September 15, 2006). "Il nemico che trattiamo da amico" (in Italiano).  
  18. ^  
  19. ^  
  20. ^  
  21. ^ including Gates of Vienna, Paul Beliën's Brussels Journal, Free Republic, Front Page Magazine, Richard Landes's Eurabia article, Fjordman's The Eurabia Code article and his Defeating Eurabia compilation.
  22. ^ Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (2008). Defeating Eurabia. Lulu.com.   (available online)
  23. ^ Sandvik, Siv (3 August 2011). "Fjordman hevder han vil hjelpe politiet i terroretterforskningen".  
  24. ^ Muslims 'about to take over Europe'
  25. ^ Will Islam Become the Religion of Europe?
  26. ^ )"Die Welt""Europa wird islamisch" (original interview with Bernhard Lewis in the german newspaper
  27. ^ Walter Laqeur (2007). The Last Days of Europe. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.  
  28. ^ Geert Wilders. "speech in the Dutch parliament, September 16, 2009". Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  29. ^ Bhandar, Davina (2010). "Cultural politics: disciplining citizenship". Citizenship Studies 14 (3): 331–343.  
  30. ^ Mepschen, Paul; Duyvendak, Jan Willem; Tonkens, Evelien H. (2010). "Sexual Politics, Orientalism and Multicultural Citizenship in the Netherlands". Sociology 44 (5): 962–979.  
  31. ^  
  32. ^ Culture of Fascism: Visions of the Far Right in Britain, Julie V. Gottlieb, Thomas P. Linehan.B.Tauris, 31.12.2003, p.75
  33. ^ DRÁBIK, Jakub. Oswald Mosley´s Concept of a United Europe. A Contribution to the Study of Pan-European Nationalism. In. The Twentieth Century, 2/2012, s. 53-65, Prague : Charles University in Prague, ISSN 1803-750X
  34. ^ a b See:
    • Fekete, Liz (2012). "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class 53 (3): 30–47.  
    • Carland, Susan (2011). "Islamophobia, fear of loss of freedom, and the Muslim woman". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 22 (4): 469–473.  
    •  
    • Shooman, Yasemin; Spielhaus, Riem (2010). "The concept of the Muslim enemy in the public discourse". In Jocelyne Cesari. Muslims in the West after 9/11: religion, politics, and law. Routledge. pp. 198–228.  
    • Fekete, Liz (2006). "Enlightened fundamentalism? Immigration, feminism and the Right". Race & Class 48 (1): 1–22.  
    • Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1–0.  .
  35. ^ a b  
  36. ^  
  37. ^ Gardell, Mattias (2011). Islamofobi (in Norwegian). Oslo: Spartacus.  
  38. ^ "Advarer mot å ta Breivik seriøst" [Warns against taking Breivik seriously] (in Norwegian).  
  39. ^ Peo Hansen/Stefan Jonsson: BRINGING AFRICA AS A ‘DOWRY TO EUROPE’. In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. Nr. 13:3, 2011, S. 448f.
  40. ^ Caudenhove-Kalergi: Paneuropa-Manifest. Paneuropa. Nr. 9, 1933.
  41. ^ Thomas Moser: Europäische Integration, Dekolonisation, Eurafrika. Eine historische Analyse über die Entstehungsbedingungen der eurafrikanischen Gemeinschaft von der Weltwirtschaftskrise bis zum Jaunde-Vertrag, 1929-1963., 2000, p. 104.
  42. ^ Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism, Peo Hansen, Stefan Jonsson, Bloomsbury Publishing, 23.10.2014
  43. ^ Guy Martin: Africa and the Ideology of Eurafrica: NeoColonialism or PanAfricanism?. In: The Journal of Modern African Studies. Nr. 20, 1982, S. 221.
  44. ^ Martin Rempe: Decolonisation by Europeanisation? The Early EEC and the Transformation of French-African Relations. In: KFG Working Paper Series. Nr. 27, 2011, S. 5.
  45. ^ When Israel and France Broke Up, NYT GARY J. BASS, March 31, 2010
  46. ^ Bilder von Europa: Innen- und Aussenansichten von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, Benjamin Drechsel, transcript Verlag, 2010, p. 260
  47. ^ The Myth of the Muslim Tide: Do Immigrants Threaten the West? Doug Saunders Knopf Canada, 21.08.2012
  48. ^ a b Europas muslimische Eliten: Wer sie sind und was sie wollen Jytte Klausen, Campus Verlag, 13.03.2000
  49. ^ Brian Grim quoted in Richard Greene, World Muslim population doubling, report projects, CNN, 2011-01-27
  50. ^  
  51. ^ Kaufmann, Eric (20 March 2010). "Europe's Muslim Future", Prospect, Issue 169.
  52. ^ Grim, Brian J.; Karim, Mehtab S.; Cooperman, Alan; Hackett, Conrad; Connor, Phillip; Chaudhry, Sahar; Hidajat, Mira; Hsu, Becky; Andrew J. Gully; Noble Kuriakose; Elizabeth A. Lawton; Elizabeth Podrebarac (January 2011). Stencel, Sandra; Rosen, Anne Farris; Yoo, Diana; Miller, Tracy; Ramp, Hilary, eds. The Future of the Global Muslim Population (Projections for 2010-2030) (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 12, 2012.  Summary about Europe0, retrieved 18 September 2012.
  53. ^ See also Randy McDonald, France, its Muslims, and the Future, 2004-04-13, family planning.", and (the articles) Farzaneh Roudi-Fahimi and Mary Mederios Kent, Fertility Declining in the Middle East and North Africa, prb.org, April 2008, especially the figure 2, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, especially the figure 1;
  54. ^ See also "Merely speaking of a 'Muslim community in France' can be misleading and inaccurate: like every immigrant population, Muslims in France exhibit strong cleavages based on the country of their origin, their social background, political orientation and ideology, and the branch or sect of Islam that they practice (when they do)." in Justin Vaisse, Unrest in France, November 2005, 2006-01-12
  55. ^ See also Justin Vaïsse, La France et les musulmans: une politique étrangère sous influence?, April 2007 (French)
  56. ^ Walter Laqueur (2009). Best of Times, Worst of Times. University Press of New England. p. 211.
  57. ^ Barker, Isabelle V. (2005). "Engendering Charismatic Economies: Pentecostalism, Global Political Economy, and the Crisis of Social Reproduction".  
  58. ^ China: the future of Christianity? | Antonio Weiss | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk
  59. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-14838749
  60. ^  
  61. ^ "Tales from Eurabia". The Economist. June 22, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2008. Integration will be hard work for all concerned. But for the moment at least, the prospect of Eurabia looks like scaremongering. 
  62. ^ a b Arun Kundnani (June 2012). "Blind Spot? Security Narratives and Far-Right Violence in Europe" (PDF).  
  63. ^ For instance in:
    •  
    • Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (2008). Defeating Eurabia. Lulu.com.  
  64. ^ Peters, Ralph (2007). Wars of Blood and Faith: The Conflicts That Will Shape the Twenty-First Century. Stackpole Books. pp. 333–334.  
  65. ^ a b Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1–0.  
  66. ^ Bat Ye'or (2002-10-09). "Eurabia".  
  67. ^ See:
    • Doug Saunders (July 25, 2011). "Norway gunman's manifesto calls for war against Muslims".   Full text
    • Doug Saunders (July 26, 2011). "‘Eurabia' opponents scramble for distance from anti-Muslim murderer".   Full text
    • Fredrik Mandal; Kenneth Nodeland (July 24, 2011). "Terroristen ville bruke atomvåpen" [The terrorist wanted to use nuclear weapons] (in Norwegian).  
    • Archer, Toby (July 25, 2011). "Breivik's Swamp". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
    • "Massedrapsmannen kopierte "Unabomberen" ord for ord" [The mass killer copied the UNA bomber word by word] (in Norwegian).  
    • Timothy Rutten (July 27, 2011). "The Norway attacks illustrate once again the danger posed by hate-laced propaganda".  
    • Scott Shane (July 24, 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S.".  
    • Andrew Brown (July 24, 2011). "Anders Breivik is not Christian but anti-Islam".  
    • Seumas Milne (July 28, 2011). "In his rage against Muslims, Norway's killer was no loner". The Guardian. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
    • Abel Mestre; Caroline Monnot (July 26, 2011). "L'inspiration des extrémistes post-11-Septembre" [The inspiration of post 9/11 extremists].  
    •  
    •  
  68. ^ "Psykiater om Breivik: – Så komplisert at vi først i historiens lys kan få svar" [Psychiatrist on Breivik: - So complicated that answers will only come in light of history] (in Norwegian). Tv2.no. July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  69. ^ Smilende Breivik fornøyd med dommen, nettavisen.no, 24.08.12
  70. ^ Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar" [Breivik wants to deport "disloyal Jews"]".  
  71. ^ "Mass killer Breivik says wants to create fascist party". Reuters. Sep 5, 2014.
  72. ^ see for instance:
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
  73. ^ see for instance:
    •  
    •  
    •  
  74. ^ "New Statesman Apocalypse now". 12 March 2007. 
  75. ^ Max Blumenthal (January 5, 2012). "Santorum warns of 'Eurabia,' issues call to 'evangelize and eradicate' Muslims". Al-Akhbar English. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  76. ^ Bawer, Bruce (Winter 2006). "Crisis in Europe".  , [5] [6]
  77. ^ Bruce Bawer, Surrender: Appeasing Islam, Sacrificing Freedom, Doubleday, 2009-05-19, ISBN 978-0-385-52398-1
  78. ^ Bruce Bawer, The New Quislings: How the International Left Used the Oslo Massacre to Silence Debate About Islam, Broadside Books, 2012-01-31, ISBN 9780062188694

Notes

See also

Eurabia theories have also been espoused by less typical conservatives, for example, Bruce Bawer, an American expatriate who has lived in Europe since the 1990s, and supported Ye'Or's allegations that there was a deliberate, coordinated effort to create Eurabia. Bawer argued that many European politicians and policy makers, in efforts to gain approval of Muslim voters or to appeal to multiculturalism, were effectively allowing the creation of Muslim-only enclaves where basic human rights were ignored and events like honor killings had become commonplace.[76][77][78]

In the United States, the theories have found strong proponents in the counterjihad movement, among them the president of Stop Islamization of America, Robert Spencer[72] and right-wing political commentators Daniel Pipes[73] and Mark Steyn.[74] In his 2011–2012 run for the Republican presidential nomination, senator Rick Santorum warned that Europe was "creating an opportunity for the creation of Eurabia", and that the continent was "losing, because they are not having children."[75]

U.S. politics

Breivik has later identified himself as a fascist and voiced support for neo-Nazis, stating that he previously had exploited "counterjihad" rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists", thereby instead launching a media drive against what he deemed "anti-nationalist counterjihad"-supporters.[70][71]

2083: A European Declaration of Independence, the manifesto of Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, includes a lengthy discussion of and support for the "Eurabia" theory. It also contains several articles on the Eurabia theme by Bat Ye'Or and Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (Fjordman). [67] As a result, the theory received widespread mainstream media attention following the attacks.[68] In the verdict against Breivik, the court noted that "many people share Breivik's conspiracy theory, including the Eurabia theory. The court finds that very few people, however, share Breivik's idea that the alleged "Islamization" should be fought with terror."[69]

2011 Norway attacks

Eurabia had then re-entered into the vocabulary through Bat Ye'Or's work, most notably the book published in 2005, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis,[3] although she first used the term in 2002.[9][66] Subsequently, the coining of the term has been attributed to her.[10]

the threat that the Crescent will rise over the continent and the spectre of a Muslim Europe have become basic ideological features and themes of the European extreme right [5]

After the September 11 attacks, Muslims and the Arab world emerged as a perceived threat.[35] Muslim minority populations and Muslim immigration gained new political significance. Scholar José Pedro Zúquete notes that

Post-9/11 significance

Arun Kundnani, writing for the International Centre for Counter-terrorism, notes that "Eurabia" fulfills the Counterjihad-movement's "structural need" for a conspiracy theory, and compares "Eurabia" to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[62] while Carr compares it to the Zionist Occupation Government claim.[65]

"In order to accept Ye'or's ridiculous thesis, it is necessary to believe not only in the existence of a concerted Islamic plot to subjugate Europe, involving all Arab governments, whether 'Islamic' or not, but also to credit a secret and unelected parliamentary body with the astounding ability to transform all Europe's major political, economic and cultural institutions into subservient instruments of 'jihad' without any of the continent's press or elected institutions being aware of it. Nowhere in this ideologically driven interpretation of European-Arab relations does Ye'or come close to proving the 'secret history' that she professes to reveal."[65]

Writing in Race & Class in 2006, author and freelance journalist Matt Carr argued that Eurabia had moved from "an outlandish conspiracy theory" to a "dangerous Islamophobic fantasy". Carr states,

According to Marján and Sapir, the very idea of "Eurabia" is "based on an extremist conspiracy theory, according to which Europe and the Arab states would join forces to make life impossible for Israel and Islamize the old continent."[4]

In his book Wars of Blood and Faith, conservative US military analyst Ralph Peters states that far from being about to take over Europe through demographic change, "Europe's Muslims are living on borrowed time" and that in the event of a major terrorist attack in Europe, thanks to the "ineradicable viciousness" of Europeans and what he perceives as a historical tendency to over-react to real or perceived threats, European Muslims "will be lucky if they're only deported."[64]

  •  
  • Bruce Thornton (March 26, 2005). "The Civilization of Dhimmitude - A review of Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, by Bat Ye'or". Victor Davis Hanson on the web. Retrieved June 8, 2012. 
  •  
  •  
  • [63] and European political leaders are frequent.intelligentsias Other premises, such as acquiring the compliance of or control over bureaucracies, [11] and will lead to a Muslim majority which will have an unchanging, hostile attitude toward their host nations.[62] The premises common to these theories are that a rapid demographic transition in Europe has been induced by “European politicians and civil servants”, 

Examples of proponent's use:

The Economist rejected the concept of Eurabia as "scaremongering".[61] Simon Kuper in Financial Times described Ye'or's book as "little-read but influential", and akin to "Protocols of the Elders of Zion in reverse", adding that "though ludicrous, Eurabia became the spiritual mother of a genre".[12]

Spread of conspiracies and further influences

David Aaronovitch acknowledges that the threat of "jihadist terror" may be real, but that there is no threat of Eurabia. Aaronovitch concludes that those who study conspiracy theories will recognize Eurabia to be a theory that adds the "Sad Dupes thesis to the Enemy Within idea".[60]

The Eurabia narrative ignores the current status of Christianity as a religion growing significantly in the global perspective. The Pentecostalism movement is being deemed the fastest-growing religion worldwide[57] and the current success of Christianity in China is being described as one of the "greatest revivals in Christian history".[58][59]

Furthermore, leading European Muslims are rather outspoken against religious fundamentalism and are far from acknowledging Arab countries as a role model at all.[48][56]

Justin Vaïsse seeks to discredit what he calls, "four myths of the alarmist school", using Muslims in France as an example. Specifically he has written that the Muslim population growth rate was lower than that predicted by Eurabia, partly because the fertility rate of immigrants declines with integration.[53] He further points out that Muslims are not a monolithic or cohesive group,[54] and that many Muslims do seek to integrate politically and socially. Finally, he wrote that despite their numbers, Muslims have had little influence on French foreign policy.[55]

The Pew Research Center notes that "the data that we have isn't pointing in the direction of 'Eurabia' at all",[49] and predicts that the percentage of Muslims is estimated to rise to 8% in 2030. Most academics who have analysed the demographics dismiss the predictions that the EU will have Muslim majorities.[50] It is completely reasonable to assume that the overall Muslim population in Europe will increase, and Muslim citizens have and will have a significant imprint on European life.[51] The prospect of a homogenous Muslim community per se, or a Muslim majority in Europe is however out of the question.[52]

Demography

The rather bleak Eurabia narrative lacks any positive vision of Europe. [46][47] It ignores as well differences within Europe (compare Olim L'Berlin) with regard to welcoming Jewish or Israeli immigrants. Actual Muslim elites in Europe have completely different, rather differentiated and overall much more positive impressions of Europe and are rather outspoken against religious fundamentalism.[48]

France was one of the staunchest supporters of Israel in the 1950s and shared till the 1960s a strategic interest, due to its Algerian territories, against radical Arab nationalism with its heyday in the Suez Crisis. The scientific literature sees the military and diplomatic blunders of the strongest European colonial powers, Great Britain and France, in the Suez crisis and with respect to France, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the start of the Algerian War, as markers of failed ambitions.[44] The Eurafrika narrative cuts that short and starts after the USA assumed its current role as ally of Israel with the Six-Day War in 1967 and France started taking sides with the Arab world to improve its relations after the independence of Algeria.[45]

[43] As a genuine political project, it played a crucial role in the early development of the European Union.[42]