|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||458.37 g mol−1|
|Solubility in water||soluble|
|Solubility||soluble in ethanol, DMSO, dimethyl formamide at about 20 g/l|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
EGCG is the most abundant catechin in tea and is a potent antioxidant that may have therapeutic applications in the treatment of many disorders (e.g. cancer). It is found mainly in white tea, green tea and, in smaller quantities, black tea; during black tea production, the catechins are mostly converted to theaflavins and thearubigins, and theabrownins. It is also found in various vegetables, nuts, as well as carob powder at 109 mg per 100g. In a high temperature environment, an epimerization change is more likely to occur; however as exposure to boiling water for 30 straight minutes leads to only a 12.4% reduction in the total amount of EGCG, the amount lost in a brief exposure is insignificant. In fact, even when special conditions were used to create temperatures well above that of boiling water, the amount lost increased only slightly.
EGCG can be found in many supplements.
- Pharmacology 1
Research on potential therapeutic uses 2
- HIV 2.1
- Cancer 2.2
- Chronic fatigue syndrome 2.3
- Sjögren's syndrome 2.4
- Endometriosis 2.5
- Spinal muscular atrophy 2.6
- Neurodegeneration 2.7
- Cannabinoid 1 receptor, CB1 receptor Activity 2.8
- Periapical lesions 2.9
- Cerebrovascular insult 2.10
- Drug interactions 3
- Bioavailability 4
- Toxicities 5
- Spectral data 6
- See also 7
- References 8
EGCG is an inhibitor of the enzymes:
- Histone acetyltransferase
- DNA methyltransferase
- Fatty acid synthase
- Glutamate dehydrogenase
- Topoisomerase I and II
- Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase 
- 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
and antagonises the Epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and Epidermal growth factor receptor 2.
Research on potential therapeutic uses
EGCG has been the subject of a number of studies investigating its potential use as a therapeutic for a broad range of disorders:
A large amount of research has been conducted investigating the benefit of EGCG from green tea in the treatment of HIV infection, where EGCG has been shown to reduce plaques related to AIDS-related dementia in the laboratory, as well as block gp120. However, these effects have yet to be confirmed in live human trials, and it does not imply that green tea will cure or block HIV infection, but it may help regulate viral load as long as it is not involved in adverse drug reactions. The concentrations of EGCG used in the studies could not be reached by drinking green tea. More study into EGCG and HIV is currently underway.
There is evidence from rodent and in vitro studies that EGCG may be useful in preventing or treating various gastrointestinal, prostate, and other cancers. However the dose needed for effectiveness is high, (far higher than is obtainable through drinking tea) and so companies and academic groups have focused on developing novel analogs or combinations to improve the potential for EGCG to be useful in treating or preventing cancer.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Research at Panjab University Chandigarh found that EGCG is effective in various mouse models of chronic fatigue syndrome.
Research at Medical College of Georgia found that EGCG was effective in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome.
Xu et al. found that EGCG reduce lesion size in a mouse model of endometriosis.
Spinal muscular atrophy
EGCG is a natural chelator and has been shown to reduce iron-accumulation in instances of neurodegenerative diseases like dementia, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. Parc de Salut Mar and Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas in Spain are conducting a clinical trial of EGCG as a potential treatment for intellectual impairment in people with Down Syndrome and Fragile X
Cannabinoid 1 receptor, CB1 receptor Activity
EGCG has a binding affinity of Ki=33.6μM towards the first cannabinoid receptor, CB1.
There are in vitro data about theurapeutic potential of EGCG in periapical periodontitis.
EGCG improves neurological status of rats that have undergone middle cerebral artery occlusion (a common stroke model). A possible mechanism is inhibition of calpain- mediated TRPC6 proteolysis.
A study using mouse models at the University of Southern California showed that, in contrast to the myriad benefits commonly associated with green tea and green tea extract (GTE), EGCG binds with the anti-cancer drug Velcade, significantly reducing its bioavailability and thereby rendering it therapeutically useless. Schönthal, who headed the study, suggests that consumption of green tea and GTE products be strongly contraindicated for patients undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. EGCG may reduce the bioavailability of the drug sunitinib when they are taken together. EGCG was also found to induce apoptosis in endometrial carcinoma cell line (Ishikawa cells and human primary endometrial carcinoma cells) via ROS generation and p-38 activation.2012 Manohar et al., J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Sep 5 [Epub ahead of print]
Bioavailability when taken orally is poor and 800 mg of EGCG result in concentration an order of magnitude lower than what have proven efficacy.
EGCG may have carcinogenic potential. EGCG was, among other tea polyphenols, found to be a strong topoisomerase inhibitor, similar to some chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs, for example, etoposide and doxorubicin. This property might be responsible for observed anticarcinogenic effects; however, there is also a carcinogenic potential. High intake of polyphenolic compounds during pregnancy is suspected to increase risk of neonatal leukemia. Bioflavonoid supplements should not be used by pregnant women. Maternal consumption of tea or coffee during pregnancy may elevate the risk of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours through unknown mechanisms.
A study in mice found that a high dose of EGCG raises ALT levels considerably.
|Retention time||34.5 min (C18 RP, Acetonitrile 80%)|
|Lambda-max||274 and 240 nm (see picture)|
|Major absorption bands||cm−1|
|Other NMR data|
|ESI-MS [M+H]+ m/z : 459|
- Proteasome inhibitor
- Health benefits of tea
- Phenolic content in tea
- Green tea extract
- List of phytochemicals in food
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