Education in the United Kingdom

Education in the United Kingdom

Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland,[1] Wales[2] and Northern Ireland, respectively.


  • Stages 1
  • Rankings 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6


In each country there are five stages of education: early years, primary, secondary, Further Education (FE) and Higher Education (HE).[3] The law states that full time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16, the Compulsory School Age (CSA). [3] This full time education does not need to be at a school and a growing number of parents choose to home educate. Prior to the CSA children can be educated at nursery if parents wish though there is only limited government funding for such places.[4] FE is non-compulsory, and covers non-advanced education which can be taken at further (including tertiary) education colleges and HE institutions (HEIs). The fifth stage, HE, is study beyond A levels or BTECs (and their equivalent) which, for most full-time students, takes place in universities and other HEIs and colleges.

The National Curriculum (NC), established in 1988, provides a framework for education in England and Wales between the ages of 5 and 18. Though the NC is not compulsory it is followed by most state schools, but many private schools, academies, free schools and home educators design their own curricula. In Scotland the nearest equivalent is the Curriculum for Excellence programme, and in Northern Ireland there is something known as the common curriculum.[4] The Scottish qualifications the National 4/5s, Highers and Advanced Highers are highly similar to the English Advanced Subsidiary (AS) and Advanced Level (A2) courses.[5]


Traditionally a high-performing country in international rankings of education, the UK has stagnated in recent years in such rankings as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests; in 2013 for reading and maths the country as a whole stood in the middle-rankings, a position broadly similar to three years before.[6] Within the UK Scotland performed marginally better than England; both were slightly ahead of Northern Ireland and markedly ahead of Wales.[7] However these results contradict those of the education and publishing firm Pearson published in 2014, which placed the UK in second place across European countries and sixth worldwide; these rankings took account of higher-education graduate rates, which may have accounted for the higher ranking than in PISA.[8]

See also


  1. ^ The Scottish Government, accessed 6 June 2009
  2. ^ About, accessed 6 June 2009
  3. ^ a b "EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE UK". British Government. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF ENGLAND & WALES, SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND". British Council. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "The British Education System". HMC Projects. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  6. ^ Coughlan, Sean. "UK makes no progress in Pisa tests". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  7. ^ "Pisa ranks Wales' education the worst in the UK". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  8. ^ Coughlan, Sean. "'"UK 'second best education in Europe. BBC. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 

Further reading

  • Blatchford, Roy (2014). The Restless School. John Catt Educational. p. 136.  
  • Christodoulou, Daisy (2014). Seven Myths About Education. Routledge. p. 148.  
  • Gearon, Liam (2002). Education in the United Kingdom. David Fulton Publishers Ltd.  
  • Giddens, Anthony; Griffiths, Simon (2006). Sociology. Polity Press. pp. 682–728.  
  • Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna (2005). What's The Good Of Education? The Economics Of Education In The UK.  
  • Peal, Robert (2014). Progressively worse: The Burden of Bad Ideas in British Schools. Civitas. p. 298.  
  • Staples N., Rebecca; Cochran, Moncrieff (2008). Early Childhood Education: An International Encyclopedia IV. Praeger. pp. 1281–1318.  

External links

  • Department for Education at the UK government
  • Studies from the Office for National Statistics regarding Children, Education and Skills
  • Information on education in United Kingdom, OECD - Contains indicators and information about United Kingdom and how it compares to other OECD and non-OECD countries
  • Diagram of British education systems, OECD - Using 1997 ISCED classification of programmes and typical ages.