Crenarchaeota

Crenarchaeota

Crenarchaeota
Archaea Sulfolobus infected with specific virus STSV-1.
Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: "Crenarchaeota" [1]
Phylum: "Crenarchaeota"
Class
Synonyms
  • Eocyta
  • Eocytes
  • Crenarchaeota Garrity and Holt 2002
  • not Crenarchaeota Cavalier-Smith 2002

The Crenarchaeota (Greek for "spring old quality") (also known as Crenarchaea or eocytes) are Gram negative and are morphologically diverse having rod, cocci, filamentous and oddly shaped cells.[8]

Contents

  • Sulfolobus 1
  • Marine species 2
  • Eocyte hypothesis 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
    • Scientific journals 6.1
    • Scientific books 6.2
    • Scientific databases 6.3
  • External links 7

Sulfolobus

One of the best characterized members of the Crenarcheota is Sulfolobus solfataricus. This organism was originally isolated from anaerobic organisms and have led to Sulfolobus becoming a model organism for the study of hyperthermophiles and a large group of diverse viruses that replicate within them.

Marine species

Beginning in 1992, data were published that reported sequences of genes belonging to the Crenarchaea in marine environments.[10],[11] Since then, analysis of the abundant lipids from the membranes of Crenarchaea taken from the open ocean have been used to determine the concentration of these “low temperature Crenarchaea” (See TEX-86). Based on these measurements of their signature lipids, Crenarchaea are thought to be very abundant and one of the main contributors to the fixation of carbon . DNA sequences from Crenarchaea have also been found in soil and freshwater environments, suggesting that this phylum is ubiquitous to most environments.[12]

In 2005, evidence of the first cultured “low temperature Crenarchaea” was published. Named

  • Crenarchaeota from the University of Wisconsin Virtual Microbiology site.
  • Comparative Analysis of Crenarchaeal Genomes (at DOE's IMG system)

External links

Scientific databases

  • Garrity GM, Holt JG (2001). "Phylum AI. Crenarchaeota phy. nov.". In DR Boone and RW Castenholz, eds. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 169.  

Scientific books

  • Woese, CR; Fox GE (1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74 (11): 5088–5090.  
  • Woese, CR; Olsen GJ (1984). "The phylogenetic relationships of three sulfur dependent archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5: 97–105.  
  • Woese, CR; Gupta R; Hahn CM; Zillig W; Tu J (1984). "The phylogenetic relationships of three sulfur dependent archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 5: 97–105.  
  • McGill, TJ; Jurka J; Sobieski JM; Pickett MH; Woese CR; Fox GE (1986). "Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 7 (2–3): 194–197.  
  • Achenbach-Richter, L; Woese CR (1988). "The ribosomal gene spacer region in archaebacteria". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 10: 211–214.  
  • Woese, CR; Kandler O; Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87 (12): 4576–4579.  
  • Winker, S; Woese CR (1991). "A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 14 (4): 305–310.  
  • Murray, RG; Schleifer KH (1994). "Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44 (1): 174–176.  
  • Clayton, RA; Sutton G; Hinkle PS Jr; Bult C; Fields C (1995). "Intraspecific variation in small-subunit rRNA sequences in GenBank: why single sequences may not adequately represent prokaryotic taxa". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45 (3): 595–599.  
  • Euzeby, JP (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (2): 590–592.  
  • Palys, T; Nakamura LK; Cohan FM (1997). "Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial world: the role of DNA sequence data". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (4): 1145–1156.  
  • Burggraf, S; Huber H; Stetter KO (1997). "Reclassification of the crenarchael orders and families in accordance with 16S rRNA sequence data". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47 (3): 657–660.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposals to update and make changes to the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1309–1312.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Misunderstanding the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1313–1316.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposal to change Rule 18a, Rule 18f and Rule 30 to limit the retroactive consequences of changes accepted by the ICSB". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1321–1322.  
  • Tindall, BJ (1999). "Proposal to change the Rule governing the designation of type strains deposited under culture collection numbers allocated for patent purposes". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (3): 1317–1319.  
  • Hansmann, S; Martin W (2000). "Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is conserved across prokaryotic genomes: influence of excluding poorly alignable sites from analysis". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 (4): 1655–1663.  
  • Young, JM (2000). "Suggestions for avoiding on-going confusion from the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 (4): 1687–1689.  
  • Xu, HX; Kawamura Y; Li N; Zhao L; Li TM; Li ZY; Shu S; Ezaki T (2000). "A rapid method for determining the G+C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube". Int. J. Syst.Evol. Microbiol. 50 (4): 1463–1469.  
  • Christensen, H; Angen O; Mutters R; Olsen JE; Bisgaard M (2000). "DNA-DNA hybridization determined in micro-wells using covalent attachment of DNA". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50 (3): 1095–1102.  
  • Christensen, H; Bisgaard M; Frederiksen W; Mutters R; Kuhnert P; Olsen JE (2001). "Is characterization of a single isolate sufficient for valid publication of a new genus or species? Proposal to modify recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 6): 2221–2225.  
  • Young, JM (2001). "Implications of alternative classifications and horizontal gene transfer for bacterial taxonomy". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 3): 945–953.  
  • Keswani, J; Whitman WB (2001). "Relationship of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to DNA hybridization in prokaryotes". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 667–678.  
  • Dalevi, D; Hugenholtz P; Blackall LL (2001). "A multiple-outgroup approach to resolving division-level phylogenetic relationships using 16S rDNA data". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 385–391.  
  • Gurtler, V; Mayall BC (2001). "Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 1): 3–16.  
  • Stackebrandt, E; Frederiksen W; Garrity GM; Grimont PA; Kampfer P; Maiden MC; Nesme X; Rossello-Mora R; Swings J; Truper HG; Vauterin L; Ward AC; Whitman WB (2002). "Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 3): 1043–1047.  
  • Cavalier-Smith, T (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 1): 7–76.  

Scientific journals

Further reading

  1. ^ Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9.  
  2. ^ See the NCBI webpage on Crenarchaeota
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. . eds. E.Monosson & C.Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC.Archaea
  4. ^ Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources".  
  5. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.  
  6. ^ Cubonova L, Sandman K, Hallam SJ, Delong EF, Reeve JN (2005). "Histones in Crenarchaea". Journal of Bacteriology 187 (15): 5482–5485.  
  7. ^ Blochl E, Rachel R, Burggraf S, Hafenbradl D, Jannasch HW, Stetter KO (1997). "Pyrolobus fumarii, gen. and sp. nov., represents a novel group of archaea, extending the upper temperature limit for life to 113 °C". Extremophiles 1 (1): 14–21.  
  8. ^ Garrity GM, Boone DR (editors) (2001). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). Springer.  
  9. ^ Zillig W, Stetter KO, Wunderl S, Schulz W, Priess H, Scholz I (1980). "The Sulfolobus-"Caldariellard" group: Taxonomy on the basis of the structure of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases". Arch. Microbiol. 125 (3): 259–269.  
  10. ^ Fuhrman JA, McCallum K, Davis AA (1992). "Novel major archaebacterial group from marine plankton". Nature 356 (6365): 148–9.  
  11. ^ DeLong EF (1992). "Archaea in coastal marine environments". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 (12): 5685–9.  
  12. ^ Barns SM, Delwiche CF, Palmer JD, Pace NR (1996). "Perspectives on archaeal diversity, thermophily and monophyly from environmental rRNA sequences". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 (17): 9188–93.  
  13. ^ Könneke M, Bernhard AE, de la Torre JR, Walker CB, Waterbury JB, Stahl DA (2005). "Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon". Nature 437 (7058): 543–6.  
  14. ^ Cox, C. J., Foster, P. G., Hirt, R. P., Harris, S. R., Embley, T. M. (2008). "The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (51): 20356–61.  
  15. ^ (UCLA) The origin of the nucleus and the tree of life
  16. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18384908

References

See also

One possible piece of evidence supporting a close relationship between Crenarchaea and eukaryotes is the presence of a homolog of the RNA polymerase subunit Rbp-8 in Crenarchea but not Euryarchaea [16]

The eocyte hypothesis proposed in the 1980s by James Lake suggests that eukaryotes evolved from the prokaryotic eocyte.[15]

Eocyte hypothesis

Eocyte hypothesis[14]

[13]