|Convoy de la victoria|
|Part of the Spanish Civil War|
Destroyer Alcalá Galiano in her sea trial without weapons
|Second Spanish Republic||Nationalist Spain|
|Commanders and leaders|
|José María Sánchez Ferragut||Manuel Súnico Castedo|
1 coastguard ship
1 torpedo boat
|Casualties and losses|
The Convoy de la victoria (English: "convoy of victory") is the name given by the Spanish Nationalists to a naval battle which took place on 5 August 1936 in the Strait of Gibraltar during the Spanish Civil War between the escort of a Nationalist convoy and the Republican destroyer Alcalá Galiano.
As of end of July 1936, the Spanish rebel forces were in dire straits. The Republic held two-thirds of the country, the capital city, the gold reserves, the major urban centers and most of the industries. Furthermore, the main shock force of the rebels, the Spanish Army of Africa was isolated in the Spanish Morocco, the Republic held most of the Navy and from 19 July the Spanish Republican Navy warships were patrolling the waters between Morocco and the mainland. Nevertheless, with the assistance of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the Nationalists managed to airlift their troops from Africa to Andalusia.
The airlift of troops
The Nationalists requested and received transport aircraft from Germany and Italy in order to transport their troops, establishing the first airlift of troops of history. Germany sent 20 Junkers Ju-52 and between 29 July and 5 August the Nationalists carried 1,500 men of the Spanish Army of Africa across the Strait by air, and another 15,000 between 5 and 15 August (according to historian Hugh Thomas, 12,000 men were flown between August and September). Hitler said that: "Franco ought to erect a monument to the glory of the Junkers-52". This success was a major psychological blow (the news of the arrival of the Moors spread terror among the Republicans), but the Republican Navy still controlled the Straits and the Republican battleship Jaime I threatened the transport aircraft with her heavy anti-aircraft fire.
Convoy de la Victoria
On 5 August, Franco decided to break the Republican naval blockade, with a convoy of merchant ships, carrying 2,500 to 3,000 soldiers, equipment and heavy weapons. The convoy departed from Ceuta and was made up of four transports escorted by the gunboat Dato, the coastguard ship Uad Kert (a World War I armed trawler, ex-HMT Rother) and the old T-1 class torpedo boat T-19. The convoy was covered by five Savoia SM.81 bombers, three trimotors Fokker, one DC-2, 2 Nieuport fighters, two hydroplanes and a squadron of Breguet XIX.
Three Republican destroyers were keeping a close watch on Spanish Morocco ports, but in the morning of 5 August the Nationalist aircraft launched air attacks against the Republican vessels in the Strait and the Republican destroyer Lepanto was forced to leave Gibraltar by the British authorities. Because of this, only the Alcalá Galiano engaged the Nationalist ships. The convoy, bound for Algeciras, successfully reached its destination on the evening after a brief exchange of fire. While mooring in Algeciras, the gunboat Dato straddled British destroyer HMS Basilisk after misidentifying her as Republican. While steaming back to Málaga, the Alcalá Galiano was attacked and hit by Nationalist aircraft. Francoist sources claim that she suffered 18 seamen killed and 28 wounded.
From 6 August transport ships crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, with the cover of the Italian bombers. On 7 August, the Jaime I and the cruiser Libertad shelled Algeciras and severely damaged the Dato and the Uad Kert, but in the first week of August a German Junkers Ju 52 struck the Republican battleship Jaime I and Italian bombers started to harass the Republican fleet so that they could not longer prevent the passage of transport ships. Furthermore, the Republican warships were inefficiently handled by her crews and two German cruisers, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer patrolled the Strait. In addition, the English authorities in Gibraltar and Tangier were hostile to Republicans. The British oil companies at Gibraltar, refused to sell fuel to the Republican navy. The Tangier International Commission denied the use of the harbor to the Republican Navy, because was contrary to the city's neutrality, but nevertheless authorized the passage of food, goods and gasoline for the German transport planes to the Spanish Morocco. By the end of September, the Republic had lost the control of the waters between Morocco and the mainland.
- Graham, Helen. (2005). The Spanish Civil War. A very short introduction,. Oxford University Press.p.24
- Preston Paul. (2006). The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, Revolution & Revenge. Harper Perennial. p.119
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p.357.
- Jackson, Gabriel. (1967). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1936–1939. Princeton University Press. Princeton. p. 249
- Beevor, Antony. (2006). The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. London. p.73
- Preston, Paul. Franco. Harper Collins. London. 1994. p. 162
- Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. pp.357–358
- Preston, Paul. Franco. Harper Collins. London. 1994. p. 161.
- Moreno de Alborán y de Reyna, Fernando: La guerra silenciosa y silenciada: Historia de la campaña naval durante la guerra de 1936–39. Gráficas Lormo, p. 700. ISBN 84-923691-1-6 (Spanish)
- Alpert, Michael (2008). La guerra civil española en el mar. pp. 99–100. ISBN 84-8432-975-5 (Spanish)
- Balfour, Sebastian; Preston, Paul (1999). Spain and the great powers in the twentieth century. Routledge. p. 1.
- Deutschland class cruiser
- Jackson, Gabriel. (1967). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1936–1939. Princeton University Press. Princeton. pp. 249–250
- KBismarck.org: "The Turning point at sea, 29 November 1936". From "Canarias, Adiós", by Willard C. Frank, Jr.
- Beevor, Antony. The battle for Spain. The Spanish civil war, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. 2006. London. ISBN 978-0-14-303765-1.
- Graham Helen. The Spanish Civil War. A very short introduction. Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-280377-1
- Jackson, Gabriel. The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton University Press. 1967. Princeton. ISBN 978-0-691-00757-1
- Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London. ISBN 978-0-00-723207-9 ISBN 0-00-723207-1
- Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. 2001. London. ISBN 978-0-14-101161-5