Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis in brown
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Chlamydiae
Class: Chlamydiae
Order: Chlamydiales
Family: Chlamydiaceae
Genus: Chlamydia
Species: C. trachomatis
Binomial name
Chlamydia trachomatis[1]
(Busacca 1935) Rake 1957 emend. Everett et al. 1999
  • Rickettsia trachomae (sic) Busacca 1935
  • Rickettsia trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Foley and Parrot 1937
  • Chlamydozoon trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Moshkovski 1945

Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.[2] C. trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium. It is ovoid in shape.[3] The inclusion bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis were first described in 1942; the Chlamydia trachomatis agent was first cultured in the yolk sacs of eggs by Professor Tang Fei-fan et al in 1957.[4][5]

C. trachomatis includes three human biovars:

Many, but not all, C. trachomatis strains have an extrachromosomal plasmid.[7]

Chlamydia can exchange DNA between its different strains, thus the evolution of new strains is common.[8]


  • Identification 1
  • Life-cycle 2
  • Clinical significance 3
    • Treatment 3.1
  • Laboratory tests 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8


Chlamydia species are readily identified and distinguished from other Chlamydia species using DNA-based tests.

Most strains of C. trachomatis are recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to epitopes in the VS4 region of MOMP.[9] However, these mAbs may also cross-react with two other Chlamydia species, C. suis and C. muridarum.


Life Cycle

Clinical significance

Clinical signs and symptoms of C. trachomatis infection and Gonorrhea infection are indistinguishable.[10] C. trachomatis is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness (trachoma); approximately 84 million worldwide suffer C. trachomatis eye infections and 8 million are blinded as a result of the infection.[11]


Treatment depends on the infection site, age of the patient, and whether another infection is present. It is possible to have a C. trachomatis and one or more other sexually transmitted infections at the same time. Treatment is often done with both partners simultaneously to prevent reinfection. C. trachomatis may be treated with several antibiotic medications. These include: azithromycin, erythromycin or ofloxacin.[10]

If treatment is necessary during pregnancy levofloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycycline are not prescribed. In the case of a patient that is pregnant the medications typically prescribed are azithromycin, amoxycillin and erythromycin. Amoxycillin has fewer side effects than the other medications for treating antenatal C. trachomatis infection. Retesting during pregnancy can be performed three weeks after treatment. If the risk of re-infection is high, screening can be repeated throughout pregnancy.[10]

If the infection has progressed, ascending the reproductive tract and Bellaminutti, Serena; Seracini, Silva; De Seta, Francesco; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Comar, Manola (November 2014). "HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Co-Detection in Young Asymptomatic Women from High Incidence Area for Cervical Cancer". Journal of Medical Virology 86 (11): 1920–1925.  

External links

Further reading

  1. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Chlamydia". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  2. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 463–70.  
  3. ^ Malhotra M, Sood S, Mukherjee A, Muralidhar S, Bala M (September 2013). "Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 (3): 303–16.  
  4. ^ Darougar S, Jones BR, Kinnison JR, Vaughan-Jackson JD, Dunlop EM (December 1972). "Chlamydial infection. Advances in the diagnostic isolation of Chlamydia, including TRIC agent, from the eye, genital tract, and rectum". Br J Vener Dis 48 (6): 416–20.  
  5. ^ Tang FF, Huang YT, Chang HL, Wong KC (1958). "Further studies on the isolation of the trachoma virus". Acta Virol. 2 (3): 164–70.  
    Tang FF, Chang HL, Huang YT, Wang KC (June 1957). "Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of the virus in chick embryo". Chin Med J 75 (6): 429–47.  
    Tang FF, Huang YT, Chang HL, Wong KC (1957). "Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo". J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1 (2): 109–20.
  6. ^ Fredlund H, Falk L, Jurstrand M, Unemo M (2004). : impact on epidemiological surveillance and interventions"Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis"Molecular genetic methods for diagnosis and characterisation of . APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica 112 (11–12): 771–84.  
  7. ^ Carlson JH, Whitmire WM, Crane DD; et al. (June 2008). Plasmid Is a Transcriptional Regulator of Chromosomal Genes and a Virulence Factor"Chlamydia trachomatis"The . Infection and immunity 76 (6): 2273–83.  
  8. ^ Harris SR, Clarke IN, Seth-Smith HM; et al. (April 2012). strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing"Chlamydia trachomatis"Whole-genome analysis of diverse . Nat. Genet. 44 (4): 413–9, S1.  
  9. ^ Ortiz L, Angevine M, Kim SK, Watkins D, DeMars R (2000). Major Outer Membrane Protein Elicit Serovar-Specific Immune Responses in Infected Humans"Chlamydia trachomatis"T-Cell Epitopes in Variable Segments of . Infect. Immun. 68 (3): 1719–23.  
  10. ^ a b c d Malhotra M, Sood S, Mukherjee A, Muralidhar S, Bala M (September 2013). "Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update". Indian J. Med. Res. 138 (3): 303–16.  
  11. ^ "Trachoma". Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment. World Health Organization. 
  12. ^ "Chlamydia Tests". Sexual Conditions Health Center. WebMD. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 


See also

  • Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). These tests find the genetic material (DNA) of Chlamydia bacteria. These tests are the most sensitive tests available, meaning that they are very accurate and that they are very unlikely to have false-negative test results. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is an example of a nucleic acid amplification test. This test can also be done on a urine sample.
  • Nucleic acid hybridization tests (DNA probe test). A probe test also finds Chlamydia DNA. A probe test is very accurate but is not as sensitive as nucleic acid amplification tests.
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, EIA). This quick test finds substances (Chlamydia antigens) that trigger the immune system to fight Chlamydia infection.
  • Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA). This quick test also finds Chlamydia antigens.
  • Chlamydia cell culture. A test in which the suspected chlamydia sample is grown in a vial of cells. The pathogen infects the cells and after a set incubation time (48 hours) the vials are stained and viewed on a fluorescent light microscope. Cell culture is more expensive and takes longer (two days) than the other tests. The culture must be grown in a laboratory.[12]

Laboratory tests