Separate Customs Territory of
Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
"Chinese Taipei" to the PRC is ambiguous about the political status or sovereignty of the ROC/Taiwan, to the ROC is a more inclusive term than just Taiwan (which is to the ROC just one part of that region and to the PRC associated with independence of the area from the PRC) and Taiwan China might be construed as a subordinate area to the PRC.
- Origins 1
- Translation compromise 2
- Use of the name 3
Other alternative references to the Republic of China 4
- Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu 4.1
- Taiwan, province of China 4.2
- China/Republic of China 4.3
- Other non-specified areas 4.4
- See also 5
- References 6
- External links 7
The increased official recognition of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in international activities, such as when accorded recognition in 1971 by the United Nations, instead of that accorded previously to the Republic of China (ROC), saw previously existing diplomatic relations transfer from Taipei to Beijing. The ROC needed to come to a beneficial conclusion to how it would be referred when there was in the same forum participation by the PRC.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC), had informally been using in international Olympic activities a number of names to differentiate the ROC from the PRC. "Taiwan" was used at the Tokyo Games. In 1979, the PRC agreed to participate in IOC activities if the Republic of China was referred to as "Chinese Taipei". The Nagoya Resolution sanctioned that the Beijing Olympic Committee would be called the "Chinese Olympic Committee" and another name would need to be found for the ROC Olympic Committee (ROCOC).
The majority view of the ROC leadership at the time was that they did not want to change, "Taiwan" might imply without China or Chinese being in the name subordination to the PRC, did not represent all the regions/islands of the ROC and did not give the ROC an opportunity to assert when wanted a claim to territory outside of the ROC.
What people refer to as Taiwan is one of several areas or islands (Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu in addition to Taiwan) and Taiwan alone did not reflect the “territorial extent” of the ROCOC. Furthermore, although it is true that most products from Free area of the ROC are labeled “made in Taiwan,” the trade practices of the ROC are such that the regional area of production is used for labeling. Some wines from Kinmen are labeled “made in Kinmen,” just as some perfume is labeled “made in Paris” and not “made in France.” Finally, it was argued that the people of the ROC were Chinese and not “Taiwanese,” so the word Taiwan was not appropriate.
The ROC government under the Kuomintang (KMT) rejected the designation of "Taiwan, China" on the grounds that this would imply subordination to the PRC. It also refused the names "Taiwan" and "Formosa (simplified Chinese: 福尔摩沙; traditional Chinese: 福爾摩沙)" as a means of reasserting both its claim as the only legitimate government of all of China, and its uncompromising rejection of Taiwan independence. Instead, deriving from the name of its capital city, the ROC government finally formulated the name “Chinese Taipei,” instead of accepting the offer of “Taiwan,” because “Chinese Taipei” signified an uncertain boundary that could exceed the ROC’s actual territory of control of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, whenever the ROC government wished to assert it. It regarded the term Chinese Taipei as both acceptably neutral and hopeful of assent from other interested parties. Its proposal found agreement. Beijing accepted the compromise position that the ROC Olympic Committee could be named the "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee".
In April 1979, in a plenary session of the IOC, He Zhenliang, a representative of the PRC, stated:
According to the Olympic Charter, only one Chinese Olympic Committee should be recognized. In consideration of the athletes in Taiwan having an opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, the sports constitution in Taiwan could function as a local organization of China and still remain in the Olympic Movement in the name of the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee. However, its anthem, flag and constitutions should be changed correspondingly.
In November 1979, in Nagoya, Japan, the International Olympic Committee, and later all other international sports federations, adopted a resolution under which the National Olympic Committee of the ROC would be recognized as the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee, and its athletes would compete under the name Chinese Taipei. The National Olympic Committee of the ROC boycotted the Summer and Winter Games in protest of this resolution.
The name "Chinese Taipei" was formally accepted by the Government of the Republic of China in 1981. A flag bearing the emblem of its Olympic Committee against a white background as the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag was confirmed in January 1981. The agreement was signed on March 23 in Lausanne by Shen Chia-ming, the President of Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee, and Juan Antonio Samaranch, the President of the IOC. In 1983, National Flag Anthem was chosen as the anthem of the Chinese Taipei delegation. The Republic of China has competed under this flag and name exclusively at each Games since the 1984 Winter Olympics, as well as at the Paralympics and at other international events (with the Olympic rings replaced by a symbol appropriate to the event).
Both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) agree to use the English name "Chinese Taipei". This is possible because of the ambiguity of the English word "Chinese", which may mean either the state or the culture. In 1979, the International Olympic Committee passed a resolution in Nagoya, Japan, restoring the rights of the Chinese Olympic Committee within the IOC, meanwhile renaming the Taipei-based Olympic Committee "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee". Since then, and until 1989 the PRC translated "Chinese Taipei" as "Zhongguo Taipei" (simplified chinese: 中国台北, traditional chinese: 中國臺北, hanyu pinyin: Zhōngguó Táiběi), similar to "Zhongguo Hong Kong", connoting that Taipei is a part of the Chinese state. By contrast, the Republic of China government translated it as "Zhonghua Taipei" (traditional chinese: 中華台北 or 中華臺北, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Táiběi) in Chinese, which references the term "China" as the cultural or ethnic entity, rather than the state. In 1981 the former Republic of China Olympic Committee confirmed its acceptance of the Nagoya resolution, but translated "Chinese Taipei" to "Zhonghua Taipei". In 1989, the two Olympic committees signed a pact in Hong Kong, clearly defining the use of "Zhonghua Taipei". The PRC had been observing the Hong Kong pact and using "Zhonghua Taipei" in stipulated areas ever since, but on other occasions, the version of "Zhongguo Taipei" was still in use following past practice, especially in official media references. In the London 2012 Olympic Games opening ceremony, when each country's team proceeds in alphabetical order in English (the host country's language), the Chinese Taipei (TPE) team did not follow China (CHN), but instead took a place in the procession as if its name were "Taipei" or Taiwan, following Syria and preceding Tajikistan instead. In Beijing 2008 it followed Japan and preceded the Central African Republic. This ordering was based on the stroke number and order of each team's name in simplified Chinese, the official script in the PRC.
Other East Asian nations have also had to make unique translation decisions. In Japan, the PRC is referred to by its official Japanese name Chūka Jinmin Kyōwakoku (中華人民共和国), but an English transliteration, Chainiizu Taipei (チャイニーズタイペイ), is used for Chinese Taipei.
Use of the name
The name "Chinese Taipei" has spilled into apolitical arenas. The United Nations that the ROC is able, provided it is invited each year, to participate in since 1971.
In the Miss Universe pageant in Panama, the first official Miss China and Miss Taiwan competed alongside each other for the first time in history, prompting the Chinese government to again demand that Miss Taiwan assume the title "Miss Chinese Taipei". The contestant in question, Chen Szu-yu, was famously photographed tearfully holding her two sashes. Today, neither Miss Universe nor Miss World, the two largest pageant contests in the world, allow Taiwan's entrants to compete under the Taiwan label. In 2005, the third largest pageant contest, Miss Earth, initially allowed beauty contestant Li Fan Lin to compete as "Miss Taiwan"; a week into the pageant, however, her sash was updated to "Taiwan ROC". In 2008, the official name for the ROC, was changed to "Chinese Taipei".
The title "Chinese Taipei" leads some people to believe that "Taipei" is a country. During the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, while Chinese and Taiwanese news channels referred to the team as Chinese Taipei, most foreign outlets simply called the team Taiwan. For sporting events, the ROC team is abbreviated in Taiwan as the Zhonghua Team (中華隊; Zhonghua being a more cultural rather than political variation of the term China), which, in effect, labels it the "Chinese Team".
Starting around the time of the 2004 Summer Olympics, there has been a movement in Taiwan to change all media references to the team to the "Taiwanese Team", and the mainstream Taiwan Television (TTV) is one of the first Taiwanese media outlets to do so. Such usage remains relatively rare, however, and other cable TV channels currently refer to the ROC as the Zhonghua Team and the PRC as the Zhongguo Team, the China team or the mainland China team.
In the 2005 International Children's Games in Coventry, United Kingdom as well as the National Geographic World Championship, the name Chinese Taipei was used too. Chinese Taipei was also the term used by Major League Baseball for the Taiwanese teams that participated in the 2006 and 2009 World Baseball Classic competitions, competing under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag. The Little League World Series also refers to the Taiwanese teams as Chinese Taipei (although the uniforms states Asia-Pacific).
Other alternative references to the Republic of China
References used in the international context to refer to the Republic of China or Taiwan differ according to the type of the organization.
Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
Taiwan, province of China
International organizations in which the PRC participates generally do not recognize Taiwan or allow its membership. Presently, the ROC is recognized ISO 3166-1 country codes. Certain web-based postal address programs also label the country designation name for Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". Inter-governmental organizations use a variety of terms to designate Taiwan.
China/Republic of China
Some non-governmental organizations which the PRC does not participate in continue to use "China" or the "Republic of China". The Scouts of the Republic of China. This is because such Scouting in Mainland China is very limited or not really active. Likewise, Freemasonry is outlawed in the PRC and thus the Grand Lodge of China is based in Taiwan.
Countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan, especially the ROC's older diplomatic affiliates, also refer to the ROC as "China" on occasion; for example, during the funeral of Pope John Paul II, the President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian was seated as part of the French alphabetical seating arrangement as the head of state of "Chine" between the first lady of Brazil, and the president of Cameroon.
Other non-specified areas
Taiwan is technically categorized in the United Nations population projections as ‘Other non-specified areas’ within East Asia.
- Flag of the Republic of China
- Foreign relations of the Republic of China
- History of the Republic of China
- National Banner Song
- Sport in Taiwan
- Catherine K. Lin (2008-08-05). "How ‘Chinese Taipei’ came about". Taipei Times.
- Brian B. Pendleton, "The People's Republic of China and the Olympic Movement: A Question of Recognition," Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, The University of Alberta, 1978, p. 115.
- Liu, Chin-Ping (2007). 1981年奧會模式簽訂之始末 (PDF) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- Chao, Li-Yun (2001-11-02). 「中華台北」會籍名稱使用事略 (in Chinese). National Policy Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- "Winter Olympic Games Lake Placid, USA, 1980". Kiat.net. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- However, the name of the committee in Chinese continues to be "中華奧林匹克委員會" ("Chinese Olympic Committee"): see Official Website.
- Joe Hung (2002-01-10). "Chinese Taipei". National Policy Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- "Mainland plea to end Taiwan's name issue". China Daily. 2008-07-24.
- "China clarifies Taiwan Olympics team name issue". New Ind Press. 2008-07-24.
- "Taiwanese team will compete as 'Chinese Taipei', Beijing confirms". South China Morning Post. 2008-07-24.
- "Stilblüten" (in German).
- "Lions Club Locator". Lions Clubs International. 2008-11-11.
- "IMF reports and publications arranged by country". International Monetary Fund. 2008-11-11.
- "Member Countries & Regions of the World Bank". The World Bank. 2008-11-11.
- "ICSU National Unions". ICSU. 2008-11-11.
- "APEC FAQ: Who are the members of APEC?". Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. 2008-11-11.
- Katie Reid (May 18, 2009). "Taiwan hopes WHO assembly will help boost its profile". Reuters. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Miss World 2008 Contestants". Miss World. 2008-11-11.
- "Chen Szu-yu with her two sashes".
- "Beauty queen renamed". Taipei Times. 2003-05-23. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- "85 Beauties Set Their Sights on 'Miss Earth 2008' Crown". Oh My News. 2008-11-11.
- "'"Rest in peace, `Chinese Taipei. Taipei Times. 2004-09-01.
- """WTO page for "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. Wto.org. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- "MEMBER INFORMATION: Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) and the WTO". World Trade Organization. 2008-11-18.
- "United Nations Infonation". The United Nations. 2008-11-11.
- Although such organizations are established in mainland, there is no or less governmental or CPC support to them.
- Basten, Stuart (2013). "Redefining ‘old age’ and ‘dependency’ in the East Asian social policy narrative". Asian Social Policy and Social Work Review.
- "Excel Tables - Population Data". World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision.
- (Chinese (Taiwan)) 國民體育季刊 No. 156. Focus Topic: Olympic Model
- Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee Official Website
- Swiss Residency Permits Refer the Nationality of ROC Citizens as "Chinese Taipei"