Cell division is the process by which a parent DNA replication.
For simple unicellular organisms[Note 1] such as the
- How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis
- The Mitosis and Cell Cycle Control Section from the Landmark Papers in Cell Biology (Gall JG, McIntosh JR, eds.) contains commentaries on and links to seminal research papers on mitosis and cell division. Published online in the Image & Video Library of The American Society for Cell Biology
- The Image & Video Library of The American Society for Cell Biology contains many videos showing the cell division.
- Videos of the first cell divisions in Xenopus laevis embryos (side view and top view), acquired by MRI (DOI of paper)
- Lindl.Calanthe discolorImages : - Flavon's Secret Flower Garden
- Tyson's model of cell division and a Description on BioModels Database
- Cell LineageC. elegansWormWeb.org: Interactive Visualization of the - Visualize the entire set of cell divisions of the nematode C. elegans
- Morgan HI. (2007) "The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control" London: New Science Press.
- J.M.Turner Fetus into Man (1978, 1989). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-30692-9
- Cell division: binary fission and mitosis
Further reading and reference sources
- Robert.S Hine, ed. (2008). Oxford Dictionary of Biology (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 113.
- Griffiths, Anthony J.F.; Wessler, Susan R.; Carroll, Sean B.; Doebley, John (2012). Introduction to Genetic Analysis (10 ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p. 35.
- Griffiths JF, Gelbart WM, Lewontin RC, Wessler SR, Suzuki DT, Miller JH (2005). Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co. pp. 34–40, 473–476, 626–629.
- Ramesh MA, Malik SB, Logsdon JM (January 2005). "A phylogenomic inventory of meiotic genes; evidence for sex in Giardia and an early eukaryotic origin of meiosis". Curr. Biol. 15 (2): 185–91.
- Maton, Anthea; Hopkins, Jean Johnson, Susan LaHart, David, Quon Warner, David, Wright, Jill D (1997). Cells: Building Blocks of Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 70–74.
- J. W. Cannon, W. Floyd and W. Parry. .Crystal growth, biological cell growth and geometry Pattern Formation in Biology, Vision and Dynamics, pp. 65–82. World Scientific, 2000. ISBN 981-02-3792-8,ISBN 978-981-02-3792-9.
- Cell DivisionPhase Holographic Imaging.
- Single cell organisms. See discussion within lead of the article on microorganism.
- American Society for Cell Biology
- Binary fission
- Cell growth
- Constantly dividing cells
Multicellular organisms replace worn-out cells through cell division. In some animals, however, cell division eventually halts. In humans this occurs on average, after 52 divisions, known as the Hayflick limit. The cell is then referred to as senescent. Cells stop dividing because the telomeres, protective bits of DNA on the end of a chromosome required for replication, shorten with each copy, eventually being consumed, as described in the article on telomere shortening. Cancer cells, on the other hand, are not thought to degrade in this way, if at all. An enzyme called telomerase, present in large quantities in cancerous cells, rebuilds the telomeres, allowing division to continue indefinitely.
Cells are classified into two main categories: simple, non-nucleated prokaryotic cells, and complex, nucleated eukaryotic cells. By dint of their structural differences, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells do not divide in the same way. Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or ova – egg cells – in females) is different from that of the somatic cell division in the cells of the body.
- Variants 1
- Degradation 2
- See also 3
- Notes 4
- References 5
- Further reading and reference sources 6
- External links 7
The primary concern of cell division is the maintenance of the original cell's genome. Before division can occur, the genomic information that is stored in chromosomes must be replicated, and the duplicated genome must be separated cleanly between cells. A great deal of cellular infrastructure is involved in keeping genomic information consistent between "generations".
Cell division has been modeled by finite subdivision rules.
 A human being's body experiences about 10,000 trillion cell divisions in a lifetime.