Cat scratch disease
Classification and external resources
Micrograph of a lymph node affected by cat scratch disease. H&E stain.
ICD-10 A28.1
ICD-9 078.3
DiseasesDB 2173
MedlinePlus 001614
eMedicine emerg/84
MeSH D002372

Cat-scratch disease (CSD), also known as cat-scratch fever,[1] Teeny's disease,[1] inoculation lymphoreticulosis,[1] and subacute regional lymphadenitis,[1] is a common and usually benign infectious disease caused by a bacterium, either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana.[2][3] It is most commonly found in children following a scratch or bite from a cat[2] within about one to two weeks.

Infectious agent

Bartonella henselae and B. quintana are fastidious[4] intracellular Gram-negative bacteria.

Signs and symptoms

Cat-scratch disease commonly presents as tender, swollen lymph nodes near the site of the inoculating bite or scratch or on the neck, and is usually limited to one side. This condition is referred to as regional lymphadenopathy and occurs 1–3 week after inoculation.[4] Lymphadenopathy in CSD most commonly occurs in the arms, neck, or jaw, but may also occur near the groin or around the ear.[2] A vesicle or an erythematous papule may form at the site of initial infection.[2] Most patients also develop systemic symptoms such as malaise, decreased appetite, and aches.[2] Other associated complaints include headache, chills, muscular pains, joint pains, arthritis, backache, and abdominal pain. It may take 7 to 14 days, or as long as two months, for symptoms to appear. Most cases are benign and self-limiting, but lymphadenopathy may persist for several months after other symptoms disappear.[2] The disease usually resolves spontaneously, with or without treatment, in one month.

In rare situations, CSD can lead to the development of serious neurologic or cardiac sequelae such as meningoencephalitis, encephalopathy, seizures, or endocarditis.[2] Endocarditis associated with Bartonella infection has a particularly high mortality.[4] Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome is the most common ocular manifestation of CSD,[2] and is a granulomatous conjunctivitis with concurrent swelling of the lymph node near the ear.[5] Optic neuritis may also occur.[2]

Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to other conditions associated with B. henselae and B. quintana, such as bacillary angiomatosis or bacillary peliosis.[2] Bacillary angiomatosis is primarily a vascular skin lesion that may extend to bone or be present in other areas of the body. In the typical scenario, the patient has HIV or another cause of severe immune dysfunction. Bacillary peliosis is caused by B. henselae that most often affects patients with HIV and other conditions causing severe immune compromise. The liver and spleen are primarily affected, with findings of blood-filled cystic spaces on pathology.[6]

Diagnosis

The Warthin–Starry stain can be helpful to show the presence of B. henselae, but is often difficult to interpret. B. henselae is difficult to culture and can take 2–6 weeks to incubate.[4] The best diagnostic method currently available is polymerase chain reaction, which has a sensitivity of 43-76% and a specificity (in one study) of 100%.[4]

Transmission

The cat was recognized as the natural reservoir of the disease in 1950 by Robert Debré.[4] Kittens are more likely to carry the bacteria in their blood, and therefore may be more likely to transmit the disease than adult cats. However, fleas serve as a vector for transmission of B. henselae among cats,[4] and viable B. henselae are excreted in the feces of Ctenocephalides felis, the cat flea.[7] Cats could be infected with B. henselae through intradermal inoculation using flea feces containing B. henselae.[8] As a consequence, a likely means of transmission of B. henselae from cats to humans may be inoculation with flea feces containing B. henselae through a contaminated cat scratch wound or by cat saliva transmitted in a bite.[4] Ticks can also act as vectors and occasionally transmit the bacteria to humans.[2]

Histology

High-magnification micrograph of CSD showing a granuloma (pale cells - right of center on image) and a microabscess with neutrophils (left of image), H&E stain

Cat-scratch disease is characterized by granulomatous inflammation on histological examination of the lymph nodes. Under the microscope, the skin lesion demonstrates a circumscribed focus of necrosis, surround by histiocytes, often accompanied by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The regional lymph nodes demonstrate follicular hyperplasia with central stellate necrosis with neutrophils, surrounded by palisading histiocytes (suppurative granulomas) and sinuses packed with monocytoid B cells, usually without perifollicular and intrafollicular epithelioid cells. This pattern, although typical, is only present in a minority of cases.[9]

Treatment

Most healthy people clear the infection without treatment, and antimicrobial therapy is not recommended for immunocompetent patients with mild to moderate B. henselae disease due to the risk of side effects from antibiotics.[2] Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole have been used, but have demonstrated limited efficacy.[4][2]

Azithromycin is preferentially used in pregnancy to avoid the teratogenic side effects of doxycycline.[10] However, doxycycline is preferred to treat B. henselae infections with optic neuritis due to its ability to adequately penetrate the tissues of the eye and central nervous system.[4]

Epidemiology

Bartonella henselae is found worldwide and CSD has been observed in many countries. The incidence of CSD appears to have a seasonal relationship, possibly due to the mating behavior of the cat flea during certain times of the year.[4]

History

Symptoms similar to CSD were first described by rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Klotz SA, Ianas V, Elliott SP (January 2011). "Cat-scratch Disease". Am Fam Physician 83 (2): 152–5.  
  3. ^ a b Asano S (2012). "Granulomatous lymphadenitis". J Clin Exp Hematop 52 (1): 1–16.  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Florin TA, Zaoutis TE, Zaoutis LB (2008). "Beyond cat scratch disease: widening spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection". Pediatrics 121 (5): e1413–25.  
  5. ^ "Catscratch disease: Clinical presentations". Emedicine. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  6. ^ Perkocha LA, Geaghan SM, Yen TS et al. (December 1990). "Clinical and pathological features of bacillary peliosis hepatis in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection". N. Engl. J. Med. 323 (23): 1581–6.  
  7. ^ Higgins JA, Radulovic S, Jaworski DC, Azad AF (May 1996). "Acquisition of the cat scratch disease agent Bartonella henselae by cat fleas (Siphonaptera:Pulicidae)". J. Med. Entomol. 33 (3): 490–5.  
  8. ^ Foil L, Andress E, Freeland RL et al. (September 1998). "Experimental infection of domestic cats with Bartonella henselae by inoculation of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) feces". J. Med. Entomol. 35 (5): 625–8.  
  9. ^ Nunes Rosado, Flavia G.; Stratton, Charles W.; Mosse, Claudio A. (2011). "Clinicopathologic Correlation of Epidemiologic and Histopathologic Features of Pediatric Bacterial Lymphadenitis". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 135 (11): 1490–3.  
  10. ^ "Catscratch disease: Treatment and management". E-medicine. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 

External links

  • CDC information
  • DermNet bacterial/catscratch
  • Cat Scratch Disease on National Organization for Rare Disorders site
  • Cat Scratch Fever Disease