Republic of Burundi
Anthem: Burundi bwacu
Location of (dark blue)
– in (light blue & dark grey)
and largest city
|-||1st Vice President||Terence Sinunguruza|
|-||2nd Vice President||Gervais Rufyikiri|
|-||Lower house||National Assembly|
|-||Independence from Belgium||1 July 1962|
|-||Republic||1 July 1966|
27,834 km2 (145th)
10,745 sq mi
|-||2012 estimate||8,749,000 (89th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
low · 180th
|Currency||Burundian franc (FBu) (BIF)|
|Time zone||CAT (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||BI|
|a.||"Ganza Sabwa" before 1966.|
Burundi or , officially the Republic of Burundi (Kirundi: Republika y'Uburundi, ; French: République du Burundi, or ), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of Southeast Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It is also sometimes considered part of Central Africa. Burundi's capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika.
The Twa, Hutu and Tutsi peoples have lived in Burundi for at least five hundred years. For more than 200 years, Burundi had an indigenous kingdom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany colonized the region. After the First World War and its defeat, it ceded the territory to Belgium. The latter ruled Burundi and Rwanda as a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Their intervention exacerbated social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, which contributed to political unrest in the region. There was civil war in Burundi as it fought for independence in the middle of the twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic.
Burundi is one of the five poorest countries in the world. It has one of the lowest per capita GDPs of any nation in the world. The country has suffered from warfare, corruption and poor access to education. Burundi is densely populated and has had substantial emigration as young people seek opportunities elsewhere. According to a 2012 DHL Global Connectedness Index, Burundi is the least globalized of 140 surveyed countries.
According to the Global Hunger Index of 2013, Burundi has an indicator ratio of 38.8, earning the nation the distinction of being the hungriest country in the world in terms of percentage.
- Kingdom of Burundi 1.1
- Colonization 1.2
- Independence and civil war 1.3
- First attempt at democracy 1.4
- Peace agreements 1.5
- UN involvement 1.6
- 2006 to present 1.7
- Provinces, Communes and Collines 2.1
- Geography 3
- Economy 4
- Religion 5.1
- Health 5.2
- Education 6.1
- See also 7
- References 8
- Bibliography 9
- Further reading 10
- External links 11
Kingdom of Burundi
The last Burundian monarchy is said to have begun in the late 17th century.
Germany established armed forces in Ruanda and Burundi at the end of the 19th century, colonizing the area and establishing German East Africa. After being defeated in World War I, Germany was forced to cede "control" of a section of the former German East Africa to Belgium.
On October 20, 1924, this land, which consisted of modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, became a Belgian League of Nations mandate territory. In practical terms it was considered part of the Belgian colonial empire, and was known as Ruanda-Urundi. The Belgians allowed Ruanda-Urundi to continue its kingship dynasty.
Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was classified as a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority. During the 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. On October 4, 1943, powers were split in the legislative division of Burundi's government between chiefdoms and lower chiefdoms. Chiefdoms were in charge of land, and lower sub-chiefdoms were established. Native authorities also had powers. In 1948, Belgium allowed the region to form political parties. These factions contributed to gaining Burundi's independence from Belgium.
Independence and civil war
On January 20, 1959, Burundi's ruler Mwami Mwambutsa IV requested from the Belgian Minister of Colonies a separation of Burundi and Rwanda and a dissolution of Ruanda-Urundi. Six months later, political parties were formed to bring attention to Burundi's independence from Europe and to separate Rwanda from Burundi. The first of these political parties was the Union for National Progress (UPRONA).
Burundi's push for independence was influenced by the instability and ethnic persecution suffered by its peoples in Rwanda. In November 1959, Rwandese Hutu attacked the Tutsi and massacred them by the thousands. Many Tutsi escaped to Uganda and Burundi to find freedom from persecution. The Hutu took power in Rwanda by winning the Belgian-run elections in 1960.
The UPRONA, a multi-ethnic unity party led by Prince
- (French) Official Burundi government website
- Official Website of the Ministry of Justice of Burundi
- (Korean) Books4burundi
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Burundi entry at The World Factbook
- Burundi from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Burundi at DMOZ
- Burundi from the BBC News
- Burundi travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Key Development Forecasts for Burundi from International Futures
- Abdallah, Ahmedou Ould Burundi on the Brink, 1993–95: A UN Special Envoy Reflects on Preventive Diplomacy
- Allen, J. A. et al. (2003). Africa South of the Sahara 2004: South of the Sahara. New York, New York: Taylor and Francis Group.
- Bentley, Kristina and Southall, Roger An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa, and Burundi
- Chrétien, Jean-Pierre The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History
- Daley, Patricia Gender and Genocide in Burundi: The Search for Spaces of Peace in the Great Lakes Region
- Gates, Henry Lewis; Anthony Appiah (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York, New York: Basic Civitas Books.
- Ewusi, Kale and Akwanga, Ebenezer Burundi's Negative Peace: The Shadow of a Broken Continent in the Era of Nepad
- Jennings, Christian Across the Red River: Rwanda, Burundi and the Heart of Darkness
- Kidder, Tracy, Strength in What Remains (A biography of a Burundian immigrant to the U.S.)
- Krueger, Robert; Kathleen Tobin Krueger (2007). From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi: Our Embassy Years during Genocide. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.
- Lemarchand, Rene Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide
- Melady, Thomas Patrick Burundi: The Tragic Years
- Nivonzima, David and Fendell, Len Unlocking Horns: Forgiveness and Reconciliation in Burundi
- Uvin, Peter Life After Violence: A People's Story of Burundi
- Watt, Nigel Burundi: The Biography of a Small African Country
- Weinstein, Warren (2006). Historical Dictionary of Burundi. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, Incorporated. 1st. edition.
- Eggers, Ellen K. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Burundi (3rd edition ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Incorporated.
- World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. Esa.un.org (2012-02-01). Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- 3rd general census (2008). Presidence.bi (2010-04-14). Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- "Burundi". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Decret N 100/183. justice.gov.bi. 25 June 2012
- Eggers, p. xlix.
- Globalisation: Going backwards, The Economist (2012-12-22). Retrieved on 2014-04-04.
- Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger Index – The Challenge of Hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food and Nutrition Security. Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin. October 2013.
- Background Note: Burundi. United States Department of State. February 2008. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.
- CIA – The World Factbook – Burundi CIA. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
- Weinstein, Warren; Robert Schrere (1976). Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies: A Case Study of Burundi. Syracuse University: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. p. 5.
- Weinstein, Warren; Robert Schrere (1976). Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies: A Case Study of Burundi. Syracuse University: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. p. 7.
- MacDonald, Fiona; et al. (2001). Peoples of Africa. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 60.
- Timeline: Burundi. BBC. April 22, 2008. Retrieved on June 8, 2008.
- Timeline: Rwanda. Amnesty International. Retrieved July 12, 2008.
- "Ethnicity and Burundi’s Refugees", African Studies Quarterly: The online journal for African Studies. Retrieved July 12, 2008.
- Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1999). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-Century. London, England: Routledge. p. 281.
- United Nations Member States. July 3, 2006. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "Timeline: Burundi". BBC News. February 25, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Marc Manirakiza, Burundi : de la révolution au régionalisme, 1966–1976, Le Mât de Misaine, Bruxelles, pp 211–212, 1992.
- Hagget, Peter. Encyclopedia of World Geography. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2002. ISBN 0-7614-7306-8.
Pastgenocides, Burundi resources on the website of Prevent Genocide International lists the following resources:
- Michael Bowen, Passing By;: The United States and Genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), 49 pp.
- René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report – Minority Rights Group ; no. 20, 1974), 36 pp.
- Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996), 232 pp.
- Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998), 198 pp.
- Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa : conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2002.
- Weissman, Stephen R. "Preventing Genocide in Burundi Lessons from International Diplomacy" at the Wayback Machine (archived March 11, 2009), United States Institute of Peace
- International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi (2002). Paragraphs 85,496.
- BBC, Country profile Burundi. (accessed on 29-10-08)(1)
- Burundi Civil War. Global Security
- Global Ceasefire Agreement between Burundi and the CNDD-FDD. November 20, 2003. Relief Web. United Nations Security Council. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Kilner, Derek (May 19, 2008). voanews.com Burundi Peace Talks Continue. Global Security
- Burundi: Basic Education Indicators at the Wayback Machine (archived June 26, 2008) UNESCO. May 4, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Haskin, Jeanne M. (2005) The Tragic State of the Congo: From Decolonization to Dictatorship. New York, NY: Algora Publishing, ISBN 0-87586-416-3 p. 151.
- Liang, Yin (June 4, 2008). "EU welcomes positive developments in Burundi". China View. Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.
- Ramsbotham, Oliver; Woodhouse, Tom and Miall, Hugh (2011). Contemporary Conflict Resolution. Polity. pp. 24–.
- Howard, Lise Morje (2008). UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- BBC, Time line Burundi. (accessed on 29-10-08)
- Burundi at the Wayback Machine (archived May 13, 2009). Amnesty International
- Burundi: Release Civilians Detained Without Charge | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org (2008-05-29). Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- Peace Building Commission Update, A project of the Institute for Global Policy, 2008
- Explosion rocks Somali parliament – Africa. Al Jazeera English (2012-11-07). Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- Burundi at the Wayback Machine (archived June 17, 2009). International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
- Burundi – Politics at the Wayback Machine (archived January 5, 2009). From "The Financial Times World Desk Reference". Dorling Kindersley. 2004. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
- "Republic of Burundi: Public Administration Country Profile" (PDF). United Nations' Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM): 5–7. July 2004. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Puddington, Arch (2007). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Syracuse University: Lanham, Maryland. pp. 145–146.
- Burundi – World Leaders. CIA. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.
- Kavamahanga, D. Empowerment of people living with HIV/AIDS in Gitega Province, Burundi at the Wayback Machine (archived December 19, 2008). International Conference on AIDS 2004. July 15, 2004. NLM Gateway. Retrieved on June 22, 2008.
- O'Mara, Michael (1999). Facts about the World's Nations. Bronx, New York: H.W. Wilson, p. 150, ISBN 0-8242-0955-9
- Ash, Russell (2006). The Top 10 of Everything. New York City: Sterling Publishing Company, Incorporated, ISBN 0-600-61557-X
- Klohn, Wulf and Mihailo Andjelic. Lake Victoria: A Case in International Cooperation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.
- Budge, E. A. Wallace, The Egyptian Sudan: Its History and Monuments. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1907. p. 352.
- Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 97.
- Bermingham, Eldredge, Dick, Christopher W. and Moritz, Craig (2005). Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, p. 146. ISBN 0-226-04468-8
- Worldwide Deforestation Rates Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.: The State of the World's Forests 2003. Published on Mongabay.com. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.
- East, Rob (1999). African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature, p. 74. ISBN 2-8317-0477-4.
- Burundi Population. Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved on June 30, 2008. Archived December 23, 2004 at the Wayback Machine
- Where We Work – Burundi at the Wayback Machine (archived February 12, 2009). World Food Programme. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
- White, A. (2007). A Global Projection of Subjective Well-being: A Challenge to Positive Psychology? Psychtalk 56, 17–20. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
- Eggers, p. xlvii.
- Dinham, Barbara; Colin Hines (1984). Agribusiness in Africa. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. p. 56.
- Eggers, p. xlviii.
- Burundi Currency Converter – Currency Exchange Rate (moved). Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- "NRI Overall Ranking 2014". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Burundi: Financial Sector Profile at the Wayback Machine (archived May 13, 2011). mfw4a.org
- http://www.worlddiplomacy.org/Countries/Burundi/InfoBuru.html retrieved August 6th 2014
- Kaufman, Stephen. U.S. Accepting Approximately 10,000 Refugees from Burundi. October 17, 2006. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
- Eggers, p. ix.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Burundi. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- Burundi. U.S. Department of State. State.gov (2010-11-17). Retrieved on 2012-11-24.
- Eating the Burundian Way at the Wayback Machine (archived June 16, 2006). Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- Levin, Adam (2005). The Art of African Shopping. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik, p. 36. ISBN 978-1-77007-070-7
- Burundi Arts and Literature at the Wayback Machine (archived October 1, 2006). Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- Center for the Arts Presents the Royal Drummers of Burundi. The Mason Gazette. September 14, 2006. George Mason University. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.
- Vansina, Jan (1985). Oral Tradition as History. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, p. 114. ISBN 0-299-10214-9
- "Sports and Recreation" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 16, 2006), Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
- "Burundi Holidays" at the Wayback Machine (archived October 1, 2006). Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- Trawicky, Bernard and Gregory, Ruth Wilhelme (2000) Anniversaries and Holidays, Chicago, Illinois: American Library Association. p. 110. ISBN 0-8389-0695-8
- Burundi celebrates Muslim holiday. BBC. November 3, 2005. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
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- Table 4a. Literacy. un.org
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In 2010 a new elementary school was opened in the small village of Rwoga, Burundi which is funded by the students of Westwood High School, Quebec, Canada.
There will also be a new school opening in one of the poorest regions of Burundi, Rusaga, which is funded by an English charity called the 'Burundi Education Foundation'. The Burundi Education Foundation is hoping to open the school in the summer of 2014.
Burundi has the University of Burundi. There are several museums in the cities, such as the Burundi Geological Museum in Bujumbura and the Burundi National Museum and the Burundi Museum of Life in Gitega.
In 2009, the adult literacy rate in Burundi was estimated to be 67% (73% male and 61% female), with a literacy rate of 77% and 76%, respectively, for men and women between the ages of 15 to 24. Literacy among adult women in Burundi has increased by 17% since 2002. Burundi's literacy rate is low due to low school attendance and because literacy in Kirundi only provides access to materials printed in that language. Ten percent of Burundian boys are allowed a secondary education.
In April 2009, the government of Burundi changed the law to criminalise homosexuality. Persons found guilty of consensual same-sex relations risk two to three years in prison and a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 Burundian francs. Amnesty International has condemned the action, calling it a violation of Burundi’s obligations under international and regional human rights law, and against the constitution, which guarantees the right to privacy.
Most Christian holidays are celebrated in Burundi, with Christmas being the largest. Burundian Independence Day is celebrated annually on July 1. In 2005, the Burundian government declared Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic holiday, to be a public holiday.
Basketball and track and field are noted sports in Burundi. Martial arts are popular, as well. There are five major judo clubs: Club Judo de l'Entente Sportive, in Downtown, and four others throughout the city. Association football is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games.
Kirundi, French, and Swahili are spoken throughout Burundi. Burundi's oral tradition is strong, relaying history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Imigani, indirimbo, amazina, and ivyivugo are types of literary genres existing in Burundi.
Drumming is an important part of the Burundian cultural heritage. The world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi, who have performed for over forty years, are noted for traditional drumming using the karyenda, amashako, ibishikiso, and ikiranya drums. Dance often accompanies drumming performance, which is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. The abatimbo, which is performed at official ceremonies and rituals, and the fast-paced abanyagasimbo are some famous Burundian dances. Some musical instruments of note are the flute, zither, ikembe, indonongo, umuduri, inanga, and the inyagara.
Crafts are an important art form in Burundi and are attractive gifts to many tourists. Basket weaving is a popular craft for Burundian artisans. Other crafts such as masks, shields, statues and pottery are made in Burundi.
Burundi's culture is based on local tradition and the influence of neighboring countries, though cultural prominence has been hindered by civil unrest. Since farming is the main industry, a typical Burundian meal consists of sweet potatoes, corn, and peas. Due to the expense, meat is eaten only a few times per month. When several Burundians of close acquaintance meet for a gathering they drink impeke, a beer, together from a large container to symbolize unity. Notable Burundians include the soccer player Mohammed Tchité and singer Jean Pierre Nimbona, popularly known as Kidumu (who is based in Nairobi, Kenya).
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural; agriculture accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi's export earnings – and its ability to pay for imports – rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 15 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Less than 2% of the population has electricity in its homes. Burundi's GDP grew around 4% annually in 2006–12. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses – a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity – risk undermining planned economic reforms. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation. Burundi will remain heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors – foreign aid represents 42% of Burundis national income, the second highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Burundi joined the East African Community in 2009, which should boost Burundi's regional trade ties, and also in 2009 received $700 million in debt relief. Government corruption is hindering the development of a healthy private sector as companies seek to navigate an environment with ever changing rules.
Sources estimate the Christian population at 80–90%, with Roman Catholics representing the largest group at 60–65%. Protestant and Anglican practitioners constitute the remaining 15–25%. An estimated 5% of the population adheres to traditional indigenous religious beliefs. Muslims constitute 2–5%, the majority of whom are Sunnis and live in urban areas.
Burundi remains an overwhelmingly rural society, with just 13% of the population living in urban areas in 2013. The population density of around 315 people per square kilometer (753 per sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, and fewer than 1% are indigenous Twa/Pygmies. Burundi has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 6.08 children born/woman (2012 estimates).
Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war. In 2006, the United States accepted approximately 10,000 Burundian refugees.
As of July 2012, Burundi is projected to have an estimated population of 10,557,259 people. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country. Over 500,000 have been displaced owing to the disease.
Burundi is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation. Economic growth in Burundi is relatively steady but Burundi has a lot of work to do to catch up to other countries.
Lack of access to financial services is a serious problem for the majority of the population, particularly in the densely populated rural areas: only 2% of the total population holds bank accounts, and fewer than 0.5% use bank lending services. Microfinance, however, plays a larger role, with 4% of Burundians being members of microfinance institutions – a larger share of the population than that reached by banking and postal services combined. 26 licensed microfinance institutions (MFIs) offer savings, deposits, and short- to medium-term credit. Dependence of the sector on donor assistance is limited.
In regards to telecommunications infrastructure, Burundi is ranked 2nd to last in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country’s information and communication technologies. Burundi ranked number 147 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, down from 144 in 2013.
Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for just over 30% of the GDP. manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum. Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap. Burundi's currency is the Burundian franc (BIF); as of May 26, 2012, 1,371.00 Burundian franc were equivalent to one United States dollar.
Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, owing in part to its landlocked geography, poor legal system, lack of economic freedom, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 80% of Burundi's population lives in poverty. Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Burundi, most notably in the 20th century, and according to the World Food Programme, 56.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition. One scientific study of 178 nations rated Burundi's population as having the lowest satisfaction with life in the world. As a result of poverty, Burundi is dependent on foreign aid.
Burundi's lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss. Deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 230 square miles (600 km2) remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum. There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of rain forest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Ruvubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations.
One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the East African Rift. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is 5,600 feet (1,707 m), with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 8,810 feet (2,685 m), lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The source of the Nile River is in Bururi province, and is linked from Lake Victoria to its headwaters via the Ruvyironza River Lake Victoria is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River. Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner.
Burundi is divided into 17 provinces, 117 communes, and 2,638 collines (hills). Provincial governments are structured upon these boundaries. In 2000, the province encompassing Bujumbura was separated into two provinces, Bujumbura Rural and Bunjumbura Mairie.
Provinces, Communes and Collines
The Cour Supreme (Supreme Court) is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunals.
Together, Burundi's legislative branch elect the President to a five-year term. Burundi's president appoints officials to his Council of Ministers, which is also part of the executive branch. The president can also pick fourteen members of the Transitional Senate to serve on the Council of Ministers. Members of the Council of Ministers must be approved by two-thirds of Burundi's legislature. The president also chooses two vice-presidents. As of 2010, the President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza. The First Vice President is Therence Sinunguruza, and the Second Vice President is Gervais Rufyikiri.
The Transitional Senate has fifty-one members, and three seats are reserved for former presidents. Due to stipulations in Burundi's constitution, 30% of Senate members must be female. Members of the Senate are elected by electoral colleges, which consist of members from each of Burundi's provinces and communes. For each of Burundi's seventeen provinces, one Hutu and one Tutsi senator are chosen. One term for the Transitional Senate is five years.
Burundi's legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2004, the Transitional National Assembly consists of 170 members, with the Front for Democracy in Burundi holding 38% of seats, and 10% of the assembly is controlled by UPRONA. Fifty-two seats are controlled by other parties. Burundi's constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Hutu, 40% Tutsi, and 30% female members, as well as three Batwa members. Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve for five-year terms.
Burundi's political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. On March 13, 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution, which provided for a multi-party political process and reflected multi-party competition. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.
Burundi now participates in African Union peacekeeping missions, including the mission to Somalia against Al-Shahab militants.
Refugee camps are now closing down, and 450,000 refugees have returned. The economy of the country is shattered – as of 2011 Burundi has one of the lowest per capita gross incomes in the world. With the return of refugees, amongst others, property conflicts have started.
On April 17, 2008, the FLN bombarded Bujumbura. The Burundian army fought back and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A new ceasefire was signed on May 26, 2008. In August 2008, President Nkurunziza met with the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa, with the mediation of Charles Nqakula, South Africa’s Minister for Safety and Security. This was the first direct meeting since June 2007. Both agree to meet twice a week to establish a commission to resolve any disputes that might arise during the peace negotiations.
In late March 2008, the FLN sought for the parliament to adopt a law guaranteeing them ‘provisional immunity’ from arrest. This would cover ordinary crimes, but not grave violations of international humanitarian law like war crimes or crimes against humanity . Even though the government has granted this in the past to people, the FLN has been unable to obtain the provisional immunity.
The 2007 report of Amnesty International mentions many areas where improvement is required. Civilians are victims of repeated acts of violence done by the FLN. The latter also recruits child soldiers. The rate of violence against women is high. Perpetrators regularly escape prosecution and punishment by the state. There is an urgent need for reform of the judicial system. Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity remain unpunished. The establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a Special Tribunal for investigation and prosecution has not yet been implemented. The freedom of expression is limited; journalists are frequently arrested for carrying out legitimate professional activities. A total of 38,087 Burundian refugees have been repatriated between January and November 2007.
However, the terms of the September 2006 Ceasefire between the government and the last remaining armed opposition group, the 
Reconstruction efforts in Burundi started to practically take effect after 2006. The UN shut down its peacekeeping mission and re-focused on helping with reconstruction. Toward achieving economic reconstruction, Rwanda, D.R.Congo and Burundi relaunched the regional Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries. In addition, Burundi, along with Rwanda, joined the East African Community in 2007.
2006 to present
While there are still some difficulties with refugee returns and securing adequate food supplies for the war-weary population, the mission has managed to win the trust and confidence of a majority of the formerly warring leaders, as well as the population at large. It has also been involved with several “quick effect” projects, including rehabilitating and building schools, orphanages, health clinics, and rebuilding infrastructure such as water lines.
The focus of the UN’s mission had been to enshrine the power-sharing arrangements in a popularly voted constitution, so that elections may be held and a new government installed. Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration were done in tandem with elections preparations. In February 2005, the Constitution was approved with over 90% of the popular vote. In May, June, and August 2005, three separate elections were also held at the local level for the Parliament and the presidency.
The main difficulty in the early stages was continued resistance to the peace process by the last Hutu nationalist rebel group. This organization continued its violent conflict on the outskirts of the capital despite the UN’s presence. By June 2005, the group had stopped fighting, and its representatives were brought back into the political process. All political parties have accepted a formula for inter-ethnic power-sharing: no political party can gain access to government offices unless it is ethnically integrated.
The mission’s mandate, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, has been to monitor cease-fire; carry out disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; support humanitarian assistance and refugee and IDP return; assist with elections; protect international staff and Burundian civilians; monitor Burundi’s troublesome borders, including halting illicit arms flows; and assist in carrying out institutional reforms including those of the Constitution, judiciary, armed forces, and police. The mission has been allotted 5,650 military personnel, 120 civilian police, and about 1,000 international and local civilian personnel. The mission has been functioning well. It has greatly benefited from the transitional government, which has functioned and is in the process of transitioning to one that will be popularly elected.
Between 1993 and 2003, many rounds of peace talks, overseen by regional leaders in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda, gradually established power-sharing agreements to satisfy the majority of the contending groups. Initially the South African Protection Support Detachment was deployed to protect Burundian leaders returning from exile. These forces became part of the African Union Mission to Burundi, deployed to help oversee the installation of a transitional government. In June 2004, the UN stepped in and took over peacekeeping responsibilities as a signal of growing international support for the already markedly advanced peace process in Burundi.
In 2000, the Burundian President signed the treaty, as well as 13 of the 19 warring Hutu and Tutsi factions. Disagreements persisted over which group would preside over the nascent government and when the ceasefire would begin. The spoilers of the peace talks were the hardliner Tutsi and Hutu groups who refused to sign the accord; as a result, violence intensified. Three years later at a summit of African leaders in Tanzania, the Burundian president and the main opposition Hutu group signed an accord to end the conflict; the signatory members were granted ministerial posts within the government. However, smaller militant Hutu groups – such as the Forces for National Liberation – remained active.
As the protracted nature of the peace talks demonstrated, the mediators and negotiating parties confronted several obstacles. First, the Burundian officials perceived the goals as “unrealistic” and viewed the treaty as ambiguous, contradictory and confusing. Second, and perhaps most importantly, the Burundians believed the treaty would be irrelevant without an accompanying cease fire. This would require separate and direct talks with the rebel groups. The main Hutu party was skeptical of the offer of a power-sharing government; they alleged that they had been deceived by the Tutsi in past agreements.
The main objective was to transform the Burundian government and military structurally in order to bridge the ethnic gap between the Tutsi and Hutu. It was to take place in two major steps. First, a transitional power-sharing government would be established, with the presidents holding office for three-year terms. The second objective involved a restructuring of the military, where the two groups would be represented equally.
The peace talks took the form of Track I mediations. This method of negotiation can be defined as a form of diplomacy involving governmental or intergovernmental representatives, who may use their positive reputations, mediation, or the “carrot and stick” method as a means of obtaining or forcing an outcome, frequently along the lines of “bargaining” or “win-lose”.
African leaders began a series of peace talks between the warring factions following a request by the United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali for them to intervene in the humanitarian crisis. Talks were initiated under the aegis of former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere in 1995; following his death, South African President Nelson Mandela took the helm. As the talks progressed, South African President Thabo Mbeki and United States President Bill Clinton also lent their respective weight.
Pierre Nkurunziza (Hutu), once a leader of a rebel group, was elected president. As of 2008, the Burundian government is talking with the Hutu-led Palipehutu-National Liberation Forces (NLF) to bring peace to the country.
In 2003, FRODEBU leader Domitien Ndayizeye (Hutu) was elected president. In early 2005, ethnic quotas were formed for determining positions in Burundi's government. Throughout the year, elections for parliament and president occurred.
On August 28, 2000, a transitional government for Burundi was planned as a part of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement. The transitional government was placed on a trial basis for five years. After several aborted cease-fires, a 2001 peace plan and power-sharing agreement has been relatively successful. A cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the Tutsi-controlled Burundian government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy).
In 1996, Pierre Buyoya (Tutsi) took power through a coup d’état. He suspended the constitution and was sworn in as president in 1998. In response to rebel attacks, the government forced much of the population to relocate to refugee camps. Under Buyoya's rule, long peace talks started, mediated by South Africa. Both parties signed agreements in Arusha, Tanzania and Pretoria, South Africa, to share power in Burundi. The agreements took four years to plan.
In early 1994, the parliament elected Cyprien Ntaryamira (Hutu) to the office of president. He and the president of Rwanda died together when their airplane was shot down. More refugees started fleeing to Rwanda. Speaker of Parliament, Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Hutu), was appointed as president in October 1994. A coalition government involving 12 of the 13 parties was formed. A feared general massacre was averted, but violence broke out. A number of Hutu refugees in the capital, Bujumbura, were killed. The mainly Tutsi Union for National Progress withdrew from the government and parliament.
In June 1993, Melchior Ndadaye, leader of the Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU), won the first democratic election. He became the first Hutu head of state, leading a pro-Hutu government. In October 1993, Tutsi soldiers assassinated Ndadaye, which resulted in years of violence between Hutu and Tutsi. It is estimated that some 300,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed in the years following the assassination.
First attempt at democracy
An estimated 250,000 people died in Burundi from the combined conflicts between 1962 and 1993. Since Burundi's independence in 1962, there have been two events called genocides in the country. The 1972 mass killings of Hutus by the Tutsi-dominated army, and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the Hutu majority. Both are described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented in 2002 to the United Nations Security Council.
In the aftermath of the killings, a group of Hutu intellectuals wrote an open letter to Pierre Buyoya, asking for more representation of the Hutu in the administration. The signatories were arrested and jailed. A few weeks later, Buyoya appointed a new government, with an equal number of Hutu and Tutsi among his ministers. He appointed Adrien Sibomana (Hutu) as Prime Minister. Buyoya also created a commission to address issues of national unity. In 1992, the government promulfated a new constitution that provided for a multi-party system. Civil war broke out.
The new regime did not unleash the harsh reprisals of 1972. Its effort to gain trust was eroded when it decreed an amnesty for those who had called for, carried out, and taken credit for the killings. Many analysts consider this period as the beginning of the "culture of impunity." But other analysts consider the "culture of impunity" to have started from 1965 and 1972, when the revolt of a small and identifiable number of Hutus unleashed massive killings of Tutsis on the whole territory.
Major Pierre Buyoya (Tutsi) overthrew Bagaza in 1987 and suspended the constitution, dissolving the political parties. He reinstated military rule under the Military Committee for National Salvation (CSMN). Anti-Tutsi ethnic propaganda disseminated by the remnants of the 1972 UBU, which had re-organized as PALIPEHUTU in 1981, led to killings of Tutsi peasants in the northern communes of Ntega and Marangara in August 1988. The death toll was put at 5,000 by the government, though some international NGOs believe this understates the losses.
In 1976, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza (Tutsi) led a bloodless coup and promoted various reforms. His administration drafted a new constitution in 1981, which maintained Burundi as a one-party state. In August 1984, Bagaza was elected head of state. During his tenure, Bagaza suppressed political opponents and religious freedoms.
In 1972, an all-Hutu organization known as Umugambwe w'Abakozi b'Uburundi or Burundi Workers' Party (UBU) organized and carried out systematic attacks on ethnic Tutsi, with the declared intent of annihilating the whole group. The military regime responded with large-scale reprisals targeting Hutus. The total number of casualties was never established, but estimates for the Tutsi genocide and the reprisals on the Hutus together are said to exceed 100,000. As many refugees and asylum-seekers left the country for Tanzania and Rwanda.
Mwambutsa was deposed in 1966 by his son, Prince Ntare V, who claimed the throne. Later that same year, Tutsi Prime Minister, then Captain Michel Micombero, deposed Ntare. Micombero abolished the monarchy and declared the nation a republic, though it was in effect a military regime.
Upon Burundi’s independence, it established a constitutional monarchy. Both Hutu and Tutsi peoples were represented in parliament, but political instability has contributed to ethnic tensions. When King Mwambutsa appointed a Tutsi prime minister, the Hutu felt cheated, as they held the majority of seats in parliament. An ensuing attempted coup d'état by the Hutu-dominated police was ruthlessly suppressed by the Army, then led by Tutsi officer Captain Michel Micombero. When Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu) was assassinated in 1965, Hutu people attacked the Tutsi in the country. The government suppressed the rioting. The Tutsi established control over the Burundi police and military.
The country claimed independence on July 1, 1962, and legally changed its name from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi. Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king. On September 18, 1962, just over two months after declaring independence from Belgium, Burundi joined the United Nations.