Bottom Lambda baryon
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The Lambda baryon
- redirect was first discovered in October 1950, by V D Hopper and S Biswas of the University of Melbourne, as a neutral V particle with a proton as a decay product, thus correctly distinguishing it as a baryon rather than a meson  (i.e. different in kind from the K-meson discovered in 1947 by Rochester and Butler ); they were produced by cosmic rays and detected in photographic emulsions flown in a balloon at 70,000 ft.  Though the particle was expected to live for ~10 s, it actually survived for ~10 s. The property that caused it to live so long was dubbed strangeness and led to the discovery of the strange quark. Furthermore, these discoveries led to a principle known as the conservation of strangeness, wherein lightweight particles do not decay as quickly if they exhibit strangeness (because non-weak methods of particle decay must preserve the strangeness of the decaying baryon).
The Lambda baryon has also been observed in atomic nuclei called Hypernuclei. These nuclei contain the same number of protons and neutrons as a known nucleus, but also contains one or in rare cases two Lambda particles. In such a scenario, the Lambda slides into the center of the nucleus (it is not a proton or a neutron, and thus is not affected by the Pauli exclusion principle), and it binds the nucleus more tightly together due to its interaction via the strong force. In a lithium isotope (Λ7Li), it made the nucleus 19% smaller.
The symbols encountered in this lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), Q (charge), S (strangeness), C (charmness), B′ (bottomness), T (topness), B (baryon number), u (up quark), d (down quark), s (strange quark), c (charm quark), b (bottom quark), t (top quark), as well as other subatomic particles (hover for name).
Antiparticles are not listed in the table; however, they simply would have all quarks changed to antiquarks, and Q, B, S, C, B′, T, would be of opposite signs. I, J, and P values in red have not been firmly established by experiments, but are predicted by the quark model and are consistent with the measurements. The top lambda (
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|Rest mass (MeV/c2)||I||JP||Q (e)||S||C||B'||T||Mean lifetime (s)||Commonly decays to|
||2286.46±0.14||0||1⁄2 +||+1||0||+1||0||0||(2.00±0.06)×10|| See [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2008/listings/s033.pdf
||5620.2±1.6||0||1⁄2 +||0||0||0||−1||0|| 1.409+0.055
| See [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2008/listings/s040.pdf
† ^ Particle unobserved, because the top-quark decays before it hadronizes.