Bordetella parapertussis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Beta Proteobacteria
Order: Burkholderiales
Family: Alcaligenaceae
Genus: Bordetella
Species: B. parapertussis
Binomial name
Bordetella parapertussis
(Eldering and Kendrick 1938)
Moreno-López 1952

Bordetella parapertussis is a small Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Bordetella that is adapted to colonise the mammalian respiratory tract.[1] Pertussis caused by B. parapertussis manifests with similar symptoms to B. pertussis-derived disease, but in general tends to be less severe.[2] Immunity derived from B. pertussis does not protect against infection by B. parapertussis, however, because the O-antigen is found only on B. parapertussis. This antigen protects B. parapertussis against antibodies specific to B. pertussis, so the bacteria are free to colonize the host's lungs without being subject to attack by previous antibodies. These findings suggest B. parapertussis evolved in a host population that had already developed immunity to B. pertussis, where being able to evade B. pertussis immunity was an advantage.[3]

Two lineages of B. parapertussis have been described. The first infects humans and is responsible for a minority of cases of the disease pertussis (also known as whooping cough).[4] The second, ovine, lineage causes chronic nonprogressive pneumonia in sheep.[5] Both lineages are thought to have evolved from a B. bronchiseptica-like ancestor.[6] This disease can be symptomatic or asymptomatic and may predispose hosts to secondary infection.[7]

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill.  
  2. ^ Heininger U, Stehr K, Schmitt-Grohé S, Lorenz C, Rost R, Christenson P, Uberall M, Cherry J (1994). "Clinical characteristics of illness caused by Bordetella parapertussis compared with illness caused by Bordetella pertussis". Pediatr Infect Dis J 13 (4): 306–9.  
  3. ^ Wolfe D, Goebel E, Bjornstad O, Restif O, Harvil E (2007). "The O Antigen Enables Bordetella parapertussis To Avoid Bordetella pertussis-Induced Immunity". Infection and Immunity 75 (10): 4972–9.  
  4. ^ Cherry J (1996). "Historical review of pertussis and the classical vaccine". J Infect Dis. 174 Suppl 3: S259–63.  
  5. ^ Porter J, Connor K, Donachie W (1994). "Isolation and characterization of Bordetella parapertussis-like bacteria from ovine lungs". Microbiology 140 (2): 255–61.  
  6. ^ van der Zee A, Mooi F, Van Embden J, Musser J (1997). "Molecular evolution and host adaptation of Bordetella spp.: phylogenetic analysis using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and typing with three insertion sequences". J Bacteriol 179 (21): 6609–17.  
  7. ^ Porter J, Connor K, Krueger N, Hodgson J, Donachie W (1995). "Predisposition of specific pathogen-free lambs to Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia by Bordetella parapertussis infection". J Comp Pathol 112 (4): 381–9.