Biolab

Biolab

Biolab (ESA)

Biolab (Biological Experiment Laboratory)[1] is a single-rack multi-user science payload designed for use in the

  • Biological Experiment Laboratory (BioLab) - NASA
  • BioLab Brochure - ESA
  • Human spaceflight users - ESA

External links

Biolab Detailed Picture (ESA)
 This article incorporates public domain material from the NASA document "Biological Experiment Laboratory (BioLab)".

  1. ^ ISS, Research and On-Orbit Facilities. (PDF)
  2. ^ ESA Research Facilities
  3. ^ ESA - Human Spaceflight and Exploration - International Space Station - Biolab
return p

end

', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )
%s
function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '

function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end


-- Helper functions


local p = {}

local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno


return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --

end

', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )
%s
function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '

function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end


-- Helper functions


local p = {}

local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


References

Gallery

See also

  • Brinckmann E, Schiller P. Experiments with small animals in BIOLAB and EMCS on the International Space Station. Advances in Space Research. ;30(4):809-814. 2002
  • Serafini L, Vigano W, Donati A, Porciani M, Zolesi V, Schulze-Varnholt D, Manieri P, El-Din Sallam A, Schmaeh M, Horn ER. The development of the hardware for studying biological clock systems under microgravity conditions, using scorpions as animal models. Acta Astronautica. ;60:420-425 2007

Related publications

Biolab was pre-installed inside the Columbus laboratory. Space Shuttle Atlantis on ISS Assembly Flight 1E, mission STS-122, successfully delivered the Columbus module to the ISS on February 9, 2008.

Launch

In the manual section, the BGB, which has a working volume of 32 L, allows manipulation of the experiment hardware in a closed, controlled environment. It also provides disinfection of the working volume using an ozone gas (O3) unit. The Thermo-Electrical Unit (TEU) maintains air temperature inside the BGB between 21 and 38 C with an accuracy of +/- 2 C. Lastly, the two TCUs allow storage of ECs and ATCS inserts before and after use at an adjustable temperature between -20 and 10 C with an accuracy of +/- 1 C.

BioLab's Handling Mechanism (HM) is a robotic arm that provides an interface between the ECs and BioLab's analytical instruments, the microscope and spectrophotometer. BioLab's microscope, which can be controlled by investigators on the ground, has a resolution that ranges from 0.6 to 1.8 micrometers (μm) with a 0.25 μm and 1.0 μm diameter field of view, respectively. The spectrophotometer, which uses tungsten and deuterium lamps, can analyze light passed through the sample in the spectral range of 220 to 900 nm (ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared) with a resolution of 10 nm. Finally, the HM also allows automated transfer of samples from the incubator to the ATCS, which can maintain temperatures between -20 and 10 C with an accuracy of +/- 1 C.

The EC is designed to enclose a variety of biological samples and provide an interface with the other BioLab subsystems, such as power, data, and life support. The standard EC measures 6 x 6 x 10 cm, whereas the Advanced EC, which is capable of video, measures 10.8 x 15 x 13.7 cm. The incubator is capable of maintaining ECs at a temperature between 18 and 40 C with an accuracy of 0.5 C. The two centrifuges located inside the incubator are capable of providing artificial gravity in the range of 0.001 to 2 G (G is the gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface). An array of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is used to provide white light illumination as well as infrared observation.

The BioLab facility, which has been integrated into a single International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) in the European Columbus laboratory, is divided into two sections: the automated section, or core unit, and the manual section, designed for crew interaction with the experiments. The core unit, which can operate autonomously or telerobotically (via commands sent from the ground), consists of a large incubator, two centrifuges, a microscope, a spectrophotometer (an instrument used to measure the spectrum of light absorbed by a sample), a sample-handling mechanism, and Automatic Temperature-Controlled Stowage (ATCS) to keep small amounts of sample. The manual section consists of the Experiment Preparation Unit (EPU), the BioGloveBox (BGB), and additional Temperature Control Units (TCUs) for storing experiment containers (ECs) and preserving samples.

  • Results from BioLab experiments could affect biomedical research in areas such as immunology, pharmacology, bone demineralization, cellular signal transduction (the processing of electrochemical stimuli in cells), cellular repair, and biotechnology.
  • BioLab is integrated into a single International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) within the European Columbus laboratory, which was launched on space shuttle mission STS-122.
  • The BioLab facility includes an incubator, microscope, spectrophotometer (instrument used to measure the spectrum of light absorbed by a sample), and two centrifuges to provide artificial gravity. BioLab allows researchers to illuminate and observe individual experiment containers (ECs), and BioLab's life support system can regulate the content of the atmosphere (including humidity).
  • BioLab provides an on-orbit biology laboratory that enables scientists to study the effects of microgravity and space radiation on unicellular and multicellular organisms, including bacteria, insects, protists (simple eukaryotic organisms), seeds, and cells.

Summary :

Description

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Launch 2
  • Related publications 3
  • See also 4
  • Gallery 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

These experiments help to identify "the role that [3]

[2]