Behavior

Behavior

Behavior or behaviour (see external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.[1]

Contents

  • Biology 1
    • Human 1.1
  • Other fields 2
    • Earth sciences 2.1
    • Management 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Biology

Although there is some disagreement as to how to precisely define behavior in a biological context, one common interpretation based on a meta-analysis of scientific literature states that "behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli"[2]

A broader definition of behavior, applicable to plants and other organisms, is similar to the concept of phenotypic plasticity. It describes behavior as a response to an event or environment change during the course of the lifetime of an individual, differing from other physiological or biochemical changes that occurs much rapidly, and excluding changes that are result of development (ontogeny).[3][4]

Behaviors can be either innate or learned.

Behavior can be regarded as any action of an organism that changes its relationship to its environment. Behavior provides outputs from the organism to the environment.[5]

Human

Human behavior is believed to be influenced by the learn new responses and thus adjust their behavior.

Other fields

Behavior outside of psychology includes physical property and chemical reactions.

Earth sciences

In environmental modeling and especially in hydrology, a "behavioral model" means a model that is acceptably consistent with observed natural processes, i.e., that simulates well, for example, observed river discharge. It is a key concept of the so-called Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology to quantify how uncertain environmental predictions are.

Management

In management, behaviors are associated with desired or undesired focuses. Managers generally note what the desired outcome is, but behavioral patterns can take over. These patterns are the reference to how often the desired behavior actually occurs. Before a behavior actually occurs, antecedents focus on the stimuli that influence the behavior that is about to happen. After the behavior occurs, consequences fall into place. They can come in the form of rewards or punishments.

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Karban, R. (2008). Plant behaviour and communication. Ecology Letters 11 (7): 727–739, [1].
  4. ^ Karban, R. (2015). Plant Behavior and Communication. In: Plant Sensing and Communication. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 1-8, [2].
  5. ^ Dusenbery, David B. (2009). Living at Micro Scale, p. 124. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 978-0-674-03116-6.

Further reading

External links

  • Links to review articles by Eric Turkheimer and co-authors on behavior research