A Day in the Life

A Day in the Life

"A Day in the Life"
Song by The Beatles from the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Released 1 June 1967
Recorded 19 and 20 January and
3 and 10 February 1967,
EMI Studios, London
Genre Art rock,[1] psychedelic rock,[2] progressive rock,[3] baroque pop[4]
Length 5:35
Label Parlophone, Capitol
Writer Lennon–McCartney
Producer George Martin
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band track listing
"A Day in the Life"
Single by The Beatles
A-side "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band/With a Little Help from My Friends"
Released 14 August 1978 (US)
30 September 1978 (UK)
Format 7"
Label
The Beatles UK singles chronology
"Back in the U.S.S.R."
(1976)
"Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" / "With a Little Help from My Friends" /
"A Day in the Life"
(1978)
"The Beatles Movie Medley"
(1982)
The Beatles US singles chronology
"Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da"
(1976)
"Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" / "With a Little Help from My Friends" /
"A Day in the Life"
(1978)
"The Beatles Movie Medley"
(1982)

"A Day in the Life" is the final song on the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album. Credited to Lennon–McCartney, the song comprises distinct sections written independently by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, with orchestral additions. While Lennon's lyrics were inspired by contemporary newspaper articles, McCartney's were reminiscent of his youth. The decisions to link sections of the song with orchestral glissandos and to end the song with a sustained piano chord were made only after the rest of the song had been recorded.

The supposed drug reference in the line "I'd love to turn you on" resulted in the song initially being banned from broadcast by the BBC. Since its original album release, "A Day in the Life" has been released as a B-side, and also on various compilation albums. It has been covered by other artists, and since 2008, by McCartney in his live performances. It was ranked the 28th greatest song of all time by Rolling Stone magazine.[5] On a different list, the magazine ranked it as the greatest Beatles song.[6]

Contents

  • Lyricism 1
  • Musical structure and development 2
    • Basic track 2.1
    • Orchestra 2.2
    • Final chord 2.3
    • Personnel 2.4
  • Variations 3
  • Supposed drug references 4
  • Recognition and reception 5
  • Legacy 6
  • Live performances 7
  • Covers 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • Bibliography 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

Lyricism

According to Lennon, the inspiration for the first two verses was the death of Tara Browne, the 21-year-old heir to the Guinness fortune who had crashed his Lotus Elan on 18 December 1966 in Redcliffe Gardens, Earls Court. Browne had been a friend of Lennon and McCartney,[7] and had, earlier in 1966, instigated McCartney's first experience with LSD.[8] Lennon's verses were adapted from a story in the 17 January 1967 edition of the Daily Mail, which reported the ruling on a custody action over Browne's two young children:

"I didn't copy the accident," Lennon said. "Tara didn't blow his mind out, but it was in my mind when I was writing that verse. The details of the accident in the song—not noticing traffic lights and a crowd forming at the scene—were similarly part of the fiction."[10] McCartney expounded on the subject: "The verse about the politician blowing his mind out in a car we wrote together. It has been attributed to Tara Browne, the Guinness heir, which I don't believe is the case, certainly as we were writing it, I was not attributing it to Tara in my head. In John's head it might have been. In my head I was imagining a politician bombed out on drugs who'd stopped at some traffic lights and didn't notice that the lights had changed. The 'blew his mind' was purely a drugs reference, nothing to do with a car crash."[11]

Author Neil Sinyard attributed the third verse line "The English Army had just won the war" to Lennon's role in the film How I Won the War, released on 18 October 1967, but having filmed his part in September 1966: "It's hard to think of [the verse] ... without automatically associating it with Richard Lester's film."[12]

In the authorized biography Many Years from Now, McCartney said about the line "I'd love to turn you on", which concludes both verse sections, "This was the time of Tim Leary's 'Turn on, tune in, drop out' and we wrote, 'I'd love to turn you on.' John and I gave each other a knowing look: 'Uh-huh, it's a drug song. You know that, don't you?'."[13][nb 1] Lennon on composing the song with McCartney:
"Paul and I were definitely working together, especially on 'A Day in the Life' that was a real ... The way we wrote a lot of the time: you'd write the good bit, the part that was easy, like 'I read the news today' or whatever it was, then when you got stuck or whenever it got hard, instead of carrying on, you just drop it; then we would meet each other, and I would sing half, and he would be inspired to write the next bit and vice versa. He was a bit shy about it because I think he thought it's already a good song. Sometimes we wouldn't let each other interfere with a song either, because you tend to be a bit lax with someone else's stuff, you experiment a bit. So we were doing it in his room with the piano. He said 'Should we do this?' 'Yeah, let's do that.'"[16]

McCartney provided the middle section of the song, a short piano piece he had been working on independently, with lyrics about a commuter whose uneventful morning routine leads him to drift off into a dream.[17] McCartney had written the piece as a wistful recollection of his younger years, which included riding the bus to school, smoking, and going to class. This theme matched with the original concept of the album which was going to be about their youth.[nb 2]

Lennon wrote the song's final verse inspired by a Far & Near news brief, in the same 17 January edition of the Daily Mail that had inspired the first two verses. Under the headline "The holes in our roads", the brief stated:

The story had been sold to the Daily Mail in Manchester by Ron Kennedy of the Star News agency in Blackburn. Ron had noticed a Lancashire Evening Telegraph story about road excavations and in a telephone call to the Borough Engineer's department had checked the now famous annual number of holes in the road.[20] Lennon had a problem with the words of the final verse, however, not being able to think of how to connect "Now they know how many holes it takes to" and "the Albert Hall". His friend Terry Doran, managing director of Apple, suggested that they would "fill" the Albert Hall.[21]

Musical structure and development

In a 1968 editorial for Jazz & Pop, writer Gene Sculatti called the Beach Boys 1966 single "Good Vibrations" the "ultimate in-studio production trip", positing that it was a primary influence for the recording of "A Day in the Life".[22]

Basic track

The Beatles began recording the song, with a working title "In the Life of ...", on 19 January 1967, in the innovative and creative studio atmosphere ushered in by the recording of "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane" over the preceding weeks.[23] The two sections of the song are separated by a 24-bar bridge.[24] The track was refined with remixing and additional parts added at recording sessions on 20 January and 3 February.[25]

Starr elaborated his approach to drumming on the song:

I only have one rule and that is to play with the singer. If the singer's singing, you don't really have to do anything, just hold it together. If you listen to my playing, I try to become an instrument; play the mood of the song. For example, 'Four thousand holes in Blackburn, Lancashire,' - boom ba bom. I try to show that; the disenchanting mood. The drum fills are part of it.[26]

At first, the Beatles were not sure how to fill its linking section. Thus, at the conclusion of the recording session for the basic tracks, the transition solely consisted of a simple repeated piano chord and the voice of assistant Mal Evans counting the bars. Evans' guide vocal was treated with gradually increasing amounts of echo. The 24-bar bridge section ended with the sound of an alarm clock triggered by Evans. The original intent was to edit out the ringing alarm clock when the missing section was filled in; however it complemented McCartney's piece well; the first line of McCartney's song began "Woke up, fell out of bed", so the decision was made to keep the sound.[25] Martin later said that editing it out would have been unfeasible in any case.[25]

Orchestra

As a solution for the missing 24-bar middle section of the song, McCartney proposed the idea of bringing in a full orchestra to fill the gap.[25] To allay concerns that classically trained musicians would not be able to improvise the section, producer

External links

Further reading

Bibliography

  1. ^ Popular Music in America: The Beat Goes On, Michael Campbell, page 213
  2. ^ J. DeRogatis, Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, Michigan: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 48.
  3. ^ Bill Martin, Listening to the future: the time of progressive rock, 1968–1978, (Open Court Publishing, 1998), ISBN 0-8126-9368-X, p.39.
  4. ^ Andrew Jones, Plunderphonics, 'pataphysics & pop mechanics: an introduction to musique, ISBN 978-0-946719-15-0, p. 214.
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ Miles 1997, p. 380.
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Miles 1997, p. 324.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Miles 1997, p. 325.
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  25. ^ a b c d e f
  26. ^ The Beatles 2000, p. 80.
  27. ^
  28. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2015), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  29. ^ a b c
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  39. ^ Dominic Pedler. The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. Music Sales Ltd. Omnibus Press. London 2010 pp 286–287
  40. ^
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  42. ^
  43. ^ Lewisohn, Mark: The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions. Hamlyn, 1988
  44. ^
  45. ^ a b
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  47. ^ "Paul McCartney's Guide to the Beatles' Songbook" Los Angeles Times 14 January 1968: B19
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  59. ^ Pitchfork. Linhardt, Alex. The Greatest Songs of the 1960s
  60. ^
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  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^ Royal Albert Hall, http://life.royalalberthall.com/2015/04/01/royal-albert-hall-was-furious-over-beatles-lyric-newly-discovered-documents-reveal
  67. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3ZMxkEAP_8
  68. ^ Second Hand Songs 2010.
  69. ^ The most famous Jazz version is the title track on Wes Montgomery's 1967 hit album on A&M Records, arranged and conducted by Don Sebesky, produced by Creed Taylor, and recorded by Rudy Van Gelder.
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^

References

  1. ^ Whilst McCartney remembered writing the lyric "I'd love to turn you on" with Lennon, Lennon, in his 1980 Playboy interview with David Sheff, credited it as being McCartney's alone, stating, "Paul's contribution was the beautiful little lick in the song, 'I'd love to turn you on' that he'd had floating around in his head and he couldn't use for anything. I thought it was a damn good piece of work."[14] This is confirmed by Lennon's April 1972 'Hit Parader' interview, in which he had stated "I think Paul wrote 'I'd love to turn you on.'"[15]
  2. ^ "Penny Lane" (a street in Liverpool) and "Strawberry Fields Forever" (an orphanage behind Lennon's house) were songs first written for the album but were released as an A and B side single as the Beatles were due for 45RPM release.[18]

Notes

[74]" released only in Italy.Oh! Darling's version of "Robin Gibb Also in 1978, his version was used as the B-side of [73]" as the B-side (also recorded by him and intended for the film).Nowhere Man Gibb's version was released as a single, with "[72]

The song has been recorded by many other artists,[68] notably by Jeff Beck on the 2008 album Performing This Week: Live at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club[69] which was also used in the film Across the Universe and won the 2010 Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance.[70] As of winter 2013, the jam band Phish has covered the song 61 times.[71]

Covers

Paul McCartney performed the song live for the first time by any Beatle on 1 June 2008 at Anfield stadium, Liverpool, England, UK. Both Beatles widows, Olivia Harrison and Yoko Ono, attended the concert.[67] Also he performed the songs at some Spring and Summer shows in 2008 (Kiev, Quebec City and Tel Aviv) and 2009 (Indio, Las Vegas) and throughout his subsequent tours: Summer Live '09, 2009 Good Evening Europe Tour, 2010–2011 Up and Coming Tour and 2011–2012 On the Run Tour.

Live performances

In 2015, the Royal Albert Hall released supposed correspondence between their Chief Executive and John Lennon, showing the RAH's displeasure at the reference to holes in the building. This was an April Fool stunt.[66]

McCartney has been performing this song in a majority of his live shows since his 2008 tour, with his latest performance being after the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix on 13 November 2011. It is played in a medley with "Give Peace a Chance".[65] The Beatles' friend and contemporary Bob Dylan references the song's opening lyrics in his 2012 tribute to John Lennon, "Roll on John". David Bowie paraphrased the line "I read the news today, oh boy" with the line "I heard the news today, oh boy" on his 1975 single and album title track "Young Americans".

On 27 August 1992 Lennon's handwritten lyrics were sold by the estate of Mal Evans in an auction at Sotheby's London for $100,000 (£56,600).[61] The lyrics were put up for sale again in March 2006 by Bonhams in New York. Sealed bids were opened on 7 March 2006 and offers started at about $2 million.[62][63] The lyric sheet was auctioned again by Sotheby's in June 2010. It was purchased by an anonymous American buyer who paid $1,200,000 (£810,000 ).[64]

"A Day in the Life"
Single by Barry Gibb
from the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
B-side "Nowhere Man"
Released July 1978[60]
Format 7"
Recorded September 1977
Genre Psychedelic rock
Length 5:11
Label RSO
Writer(s) Lennon-McCartney
Producer(s) George Martin
Barry Gibb singles chronology
"I'll Kiss Your Memory"
(1970)
"A Day in the Life"
(1978)
"Guilty"
(1980)

Legacy

The song appears on many top songs lists. It placed twelfth on CBC's 50 Tracks, the second highest Beatles song on the list after "In My Life".[53] It placed first in Q Magazine‍ '​s list of the 50 greatest British songs of all time, and was at the top of Mojo Magazine's 101 Greatest Beatles' Songs, as decided by a panel of musicians and journalists.[54][55][56] "A Day in the Life" was also nominated for a Grammy in 1967 for Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist Or Instrumentalist.[57] In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked "A Day in the Life" at number 28 on the magazine's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time",[5] and in 2010, the magazine deemed it to be the Beatles' greatest song.[58] It is listed at number 5 in Pitchfork Media's The 200 Greatest Songs of the 1960s.[59]

"A Day in the Life" became one of the Beatles' most influential songs. Paul Grushkin in his book Rockin' Down the Highway: The Cars and People That Made Rock Roll, called the song "one of the most ambitious, influential, and groundbreaking works in pop music history".[50] In "From Craft to Art: Formal Structure in the Music of The Beatles", the song is described thus: "'A Day in the Life' is perhaps one of the most important single tracks in the history of rock music; clocking in at only four minutes and forty-five seconds, it must surely be among the shortest epic pieces in rock."[51] Richard Goldstein of The New York Times called the song "a deadly earnest excursion in emotive music with a chilling lyric ... [that] stands as one of the most important Lennon-McCartney compositions ... an historic Pop event".[52]

Recognition and reception

When Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released in South Asia, Malaysia and Hong Kong, "A Day in the Life" "With a Little Help from My Friends" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" were excluded because of supposed drug references.[49]

Lennon and McCartney denied that there were drug references and publicly complained about the ban at a dinner party at the home of their manager, [6]

The song became controversial for its supposed references to drugs. The BBC announced that it would not broadcast "A Day in the Life" due to the line "I'd love to turn you on", which, according to the corporation, advocated drug use.[7] Other lyrics allegedly referring to drugs include "found my way upstairs and had a smoke / somebody spoke and I went into a dream". A spokesman for the BBC stated, "We have listened to this song over and over again. And we have decided that it appears to go just a little too far, and could encourage a permissive attitude to drug-taking."[45] The ban was eventually lifted on 13 March 1972.[46]

Supposed drug references

Following "A Day in the Life" on the Sgt. Pepper album (as first released on LP in the UK and years later worldwide on CD) is a high-frequency 15-kilohertz tone and some randomly spliced Beatles studio chatter. The frequency is best understood as what we know as a dog whistle as the frequency is picked up by a dog's ear and was part of their humour. They joked about picturing barking dogs should they be present when the album would finish. Recorded two months after the mono and stereo masters for "A Day in the Life" had been finalised, the studio chatter (titled in the session notes "Edit for LP End") was added to the run-out groove of the initial British pressing. There are even a few variations of the chatter, though the best known one is them saying during the laughter and chatter "never could see any other way."[43] The Anthology 2 album includes an early, pre-orchestral version of the song and Anthology 3 includes a version of "The End" that concludes by having the last note fade into the final chord of "A Day in the Life" (reversed, then played forwards).[44] The Love version has the song starting with Lennon's intro of "sugar plum fairy", with the strings being more prominent during the crescendos.

On the Sgt. Pepper album, the start of "A Day in the Life" is cross-faded with the applause at the end of the previous track "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise)". On The Beatles 1967–1970 LP, "A Day in the Life" fades in through the Sgt. Pepper cross-fade, but on Imagine: John Lennon and the CD version of 1967–1970, the song starts cleanly, without any fade or cross-fade.[41][42]

Variations

Production
Arrangements
  • Orchestrated by George Martin, John Lennon and Paul McCartney
  • Conducted by George Martin, John Lennon and Paul McCartney
Additional musicians

Personnel

The piano chord was a replacement for a failed vocal experiment. On the evening following the orchestra recording session, the four Beatles had recorded an ending of their voices humming the chord, but after multiple overdubs they wanted something with more impact.[38] This final E chord represents a VI to the song's tonic G major, although Pedler argues that the preceding chord changes (from F ("them all") to E ("Now they know") Em7 ("takes to fill") C ("love to turn you") and B ("on")) followed by the chromatic ascent, shift our sense of the tonic from G to E; creating a different feeling to the usual emotional uplift associated with a VI modulation.[39]

Following the final orchestral crescendo, the song ends with one of the most famous final chords in music history.[29][36] Lennon, McCartney, Starr, and Evans shared three different pianos, with Martin on the harmonium, and all played an E-major chord simultaneously. The final chord was made to ring out for over forty seconds by increasing the recording sound level as the vibration faded out. Towards the end of the chord the recording level was so high that listeners can hear the sounds of the studio, including rustling papers and a squeaking chair.[37]

Final chord

Due to the multiple takes required to perfect the orchestral cacophony and the final chord, as well as their considerable procrastination in composing the song, the total duration of time spent recording "A Day in the Life" was 34 hours.[34] In contrast, the Beatles' earliest work, their first album Please Please Me, had been recorded in its entirety in only 10 hours, 45 minutes.[35]

McCartney noted that the strings were able to keep themselves in the designated time, while the trumpets were "much wilder".[31] McCartney had originally wanted a 90-piece orchestra, but this proved impossible; the difference was made up, as the semi-improvised segment was recorded multiple times and eventually four different recordings were overdubbed into a single massive crescendo.[25] The results were successful; in the final edit of the song, the orchestral bridge is reprised after the final verse. It was arranged for the orchestral session to be filmed by NEMS Enterprises for use in a planned television special.[32] The film was never released in its entirety, although portions of it can be seen in the "A Day in the Life" promotional film, which includes shots of studio guests Mick Jagger, Marianne Faithfull, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Donovan, Pattie Boyd, and Michael Nesmith.[33] Reflecting the Beatles' taste for experimentation and the avant garde at this point in their careers, the orchestra players were asked to wear or were given a costume piece on top of their formal dress. This resulted in different players wearing anything from fake noses to fake stick-on nipples. Martin recalled that the lead violinist performed wearing a gorilla paw, while a bassoon player placed a balloon on the end of his instrument.[29]

What I did there was to write ... the lowest possible note for each of the instruments in the orchestra. At the end of the twenty-four bars, I wrote the highest note ... near a chord of E major. Then I put a squiggly line right through the twenty-four bars, with reference points to tell them roughly what note they should have reached during each bar ... Of course, they all looked at me as though I were completely mad.[30]

Martin later described explaining his improvised score to the puzzled orchestra: [29] for the players, an extravagance at the time.[28] The orchestral part was recorded on 10 February 1967, with McCartney and Martin conducting a 40-piece orchestra. The recording session was completed at a total cost of £367 (£5,949 as of 2016)[25] that encouraged the musicians to improvise within the defined framework.crescendo atonal It was an extended, [27]