2016 Summer Olympics

2016 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXXI Olympiad
Official logo of the 2016 Summer Olympics. More..
Host city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Motto Live your passion
(Portuguese: Viva sua paixão
Nations participating 142 qualified (206 expected)
Athletes participating 4489 (more than 10500 expected)
Events 306 in 28 sports
Opening ceremony August 5
Closing ceremony August 21
Stadium Maracanã Stadium

The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016),[1] officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, are the 31st Summer Olympic Games, the world's largest international multi-sport event that is held every four years. The 2016 Summer Olympics are commonly known as Rio 2016, as this competition will be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The host city of Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. The other finalists were Madrid, Spain; Chicago, United States; and Tokyo, Japan. Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics, the second city in Latin America to host the event after Mexico City in 1968, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.

The games will take place from 5 to 21 August 2016 and more than 10,500 athletes from 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) will take part in this sporting event.[2] The games will feature 28 sports — including rugby sevens and golf, which were added by the International Olympic Committee in 2009.

These sporting events will take place across 33 venues spread across four regions of the city namely – Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã.[2]


  • Bidding process 1
  • Development and preparation 2
    • Venues and infrastructure 2.1
    • Security 2.2
    • Concerns over completion 2.3
    • Financing 2.4
      • Phase I – Applicant City 2.4.1
      • Phase II – Candidate City 2.4.2
      • Investment 2.4.3
    • Ticketing 2.5
    • Torch relay 2.6
  • The Games 3
    • Opening ceremony 3.1
    • Sports 3.2
      • New sports 3.2.1
    • Participating National Olympic Committees 3.3
    • Calendar 3.4
    • Event times 3.5
    • Closing ceremony 3.6
    • Logo 3.7
    • Official mascot 3.8
  • Concerns and Controversies 4
    • Sanitation levels 4.1
  • Broadcasting 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Bidding process

The then-President Lula (center with flag of Brazil), Brazilian footballer Pelé (hugging) and then-governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro Sérgio Cabral (right) when, in 2009, Rio was announced as host.

The bidding process for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was officially launched on 16 May 2007.[3] The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo (which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020). The IOC did not promote Doha to the Candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, due to their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.[4]

Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections.[5]

Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media.

Ultimately, you are communicating with just 115 people and each one has influencers and pressure groups but you are still speaking to no more than about 1,500 people, perhaps 5,000 in the broadest sense. It is not just about getting ads out there but it is about a targeted and very carefully planned campaign.
— Jon Tibbs, a consultant on the Tokyo bid[6]

The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Chicago and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics. Failed bids from other South American cities include Buenos Aires (1936, 1956, 1968, 2004), Cali (1976, 1988, 2004), and Brasília, which withdrew during the 2000 Summer Olympic bidding process.

2016 Summer Olympics bidding results[7]
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 26 46 66
Madrid  Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo  Japan 22 20
Chicago  United States 18

Development and preparation

Map of Rio de Janeiro showing the competition venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Maracanã Stadium, site of the opening and closing ceremonies, in addition to the finals of football.

On 26 June 2011 it was reported on

Preceded by
Summer Olympic Games
Rio de Janeiro

XXXI Olympiad (2016)
Succeeded by
  • Rio de Janeiro 2016 from the International Olympic Committee
  • Rio de Janeiro 2016 Official Homepage

External links

  1. ^ The Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation is , in Brazil's standard pronunciation.
  2. ^ a b "About Rio 2016 Summer Olympics". Rio 2016 Olympics Wiki. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "2016 Bid Process Launched". International Olympic Committee. May 16, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC News. June 4, 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  5. ^ "Olympic News – Official Source of Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Rings Around the World Communicate magazine, April 2009
  7. ^ "Past Bid Results". GamesBids.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  8. ^ "Around the Rings - Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro City Hall. Retrieved 10 August 2012. (Portuguese).
  11. ^ "Rio gang violence amid Olympics safety concerns". Press TV. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  12. ^ "Rio's mayor expresses safety concerns for 2016 Olympics , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO". ksdk.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  13. ^ Wilson, Stephen (20 October 2009). "IOC confident in Rio despite new wave of violence". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  14. ^ "Olympic Newsdesk — IOC Confident in Rio; Obama Addresses Critics". Aroundtherings.com. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  15. ^ [4]
  16. ^ "IOC show confidence in Brazil efforts".  
  17. ^ The Daily Advance http://www.dailyadvance.com/news/world/brazil-pledges-olympic-security-after-rio-violence-904063.html. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  18. ^ "Pacifying Rio’s Favelas". latintelligence.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  19. ^ Knott, Tracey (June 29, 2012). "Rio de Janeiro Homicides Reach 21-Year Low". InSight Crime. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Homicidios en Río de Janeiro llegan a su nivel más bajo desde 1991". La Nueva Provincia (in Español). 27 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  21. ^ Stone, Hannah (19 June 2012). "Human Rights Watch Praises, Criticizes Rio Govt". InSight Crime. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Moore-Bridger, Benedict (9 May 2014). "Could Rio games come to London? Olympic bosses make secret plea to use 2012 venues". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  23. ^ Gibson, Owen (29 April 2014). "Rio 2016 Olympic preparations damned as 'worst ever' by IOC". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  24. ^ "Rio's Olympic preparations 'worst' ever, says IOC's Coate". Reuters. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  25. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Rio 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  26. ^ "G1 - Passada crise com o COI, Paes diz que obras da Rio 2016 estão 'na mão' - notícias em Rio 450 anos". Rio 450 anos. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  27. ^ "Prijzen tickets Olympische Spelen 2016 in Rio bekend". olympischespelenrio.nl. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  28. ^ "Olympic Games ticket prices September 2014" (PDF). Rio 2016. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Goais will be the first state to recive the Rio 2016 Olympic Flame". USA Today. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games".  
  31. ^ "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games". Fox News Channel. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  32. ^ "Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games.". Sky (United Kingdom). Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  33. ^ "Around the Rings - Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  34. ^ "Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  35. ^ "Windsurfing restored to Brazil 2016 Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  36. ^ "Armstrong confession could see cycling out of Olympics". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  37. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique : ACRO". Fig-gymnastics.com. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  38. ^ "Rio Olympics gets 1st qualified athletes". USA Today. Associated Press. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  39. ^ "UCI and IOC agree qualification quotas for Rio 2016". Reuters. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  40. ^ Anderson, Gary (2 February 2014). "Weightlifting qualification criteria for Rio 2016 approved by IOC". Inside the Games. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  41. ^ "Refugees can compete for first time in 2016 Rio Olympics, IOC head says".  
  42. ^ "Tickets".  
  43. ^ "Swimming, beach volleyball will be on late in Rio". US News & World Report. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  44. ^ "Athletics timetable for Rio 2016 Olympics published". iaaf.org. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  45. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=946d16c3-1d8c-4565-8d41-4f390aaea721.pdf&urlSlug=athletics-timetable-rio-2016-olympic-games
  46. ^ Nudd, Tim (14 August 2012). "Hated the London 2012 Logo? You Might Like Rio 2016 Better Brazil's Tatíl Design tells story of its creation".  
  47. ^ "2016 Summer Olympics Logo: Design and History". Famouslogos.us. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  48. ^ Rio 2016: Another Olympic logo. Another controversy, Steve Douglas, The Logo Factory, 3 January 2011
  49. ^ "Suspeita de plágio arranha divulgação mundial da marca da Rio 2016". Veja. 12 July 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015. 
  50. ^ "Rio 2016: Olympic and Paralympic mascots launched". Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  51. ^ "Rio 2016 mascots inspired by animals and plants of Brazil". Reuters. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "Rio's waters are so filthy that 2016 Olympians risk becoming violently ill and unable to compete". Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  53. ^ "IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil". International Olympic Committee. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 


See also

In August 2009, the IOC reached a deal to sell domestic broadcast rights to the 2016 Summer Olympics to [53]


The beaches in Rio de Janeiro have been a major health hazard that has been present and can pose a threat among athletes. Progress has been lackluster from the lack of cleanup from trash strewn across the beaches in Rio. While officials have promised to make water safe, this has not been the case.[52]

Sanitation levels

Concerns and Controversies

The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014. The Olympic mascot is called Vinicius and is named after musician Vinicius de Moraes. The Paralympic mascot is called Tom, named after the musician Tom Jobim. The Olympic mascot represents Brazilian wildlife, primarily carrying design traits of mammals. The agility of cats, sway of monkeys and grace of birds. He can stretch his arms and legs as much as he wants. The mascots' fictional backstories state that they were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games. Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes, whose results were announced on 14 December 2014. The other choices were Oba and Eba and Tiba Tuque and Esquindim.[50][51]

Official mascot

The Rio 2016 logo was designed by Tatil Design, a Brazilian company, and unveiled on December 31, 2010.[46] The logo represents three figures, in the yellow, green, and blue of the Brazilian flag, joined at the arms and in a triple embrace, with the overall shape reflecting that of Salvador Carnival logo clearly was.[49]

The closing ceremony will also take place at the Maracanã Stadium on 21 August 2016.

Closing ceremony

Swimming heats will be held beginning at 13:00 BRT (UTC−3). Swimming finals will be held from 22:00. to 00:00 BRT. Some beach volleyball matches will begin at midnight BRT.[43] Meanwhile, each track and field morning session will include at least one final. There will be at least one final during each of the six morning sessions in the stadium. Eight stadium events will hold morning session finals, a first at the Olympics since 1988. The first is the women’s 10,000m on the first day of track and field competition on Friday 12 August, one week after the Opening Ceremony. The others are the men’s discus (13 August), women’s 3000m steeplechase and hammer throw (15 August), men’s triple jump and women’s discus (16 August), men’s 3000m steeplechase (Aug. 17) and men’s 400m hurdles (Aug. 18).The men's 100m finals will begin at 22h35 BRT on August 14. The women’s 100m final is the night before at 22:35 BRT. The men’s 200m final is Thursday 18 August at 22:30 BRT. The women’s 200m final is Aug. 17 at 22:30. BRT. The men’s 4 × 100 m relay final is Friday 19 August at 22h35. BRT.[44][45]

Event times

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
August 3
Gold medal events
Ceremonies (opening / closing) OC CC
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Athletics 3 5 4 5 5 4 6 7 7 1 47
Badminton 1 1 2 1 5
Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 13
Canoeing Slalom 1 1 2 16
Sprint 4 4 4
Cycling Road cycling 1 1 2 18
Track cycling 1 2 2 1 1 3
Mountain biking 1 1
Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Field hockey 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Golf 1 1 2
Gymnastics Artistic 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 EG 18
Rhythmic 1 1
Trampolining 1 1
Handball 1 1 2
Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing 2 4 4 4 14
Rugby sevens 1 1 2
Sailing 2 2 2 2 2 10
Shooting 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 15
Swimming 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis 1 1 3 5
Triathlon 1 1 2
Volleyball Beach volleyball 1 1 4
Indoor volleyball 1 1
Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Wrestling 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 18
Total gold medal events 12 14 14 15 20 19 24 21 22 17 25 16 23 22 30 12 306
Cumulative total 12 26 40 55 75 94 118 139 161 178 203 219 242 264 294 306
August 3
Gold medal events

This is based on the schedule released on the same day as ticket sales began, March 31st, 2015.[42]

All dates are Brasília Time (UTC–3)


Participating National Olympic Committees

Amid the European migrant crisis, the IOC will allow refugee athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag. In previous Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete due to their inability to represent their home NOCs.[41]

The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games.[38] As host nation Brazil has also received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events.[39][40] As of 18 October 2015, 142 out of the current 206 NOCs have qualified at least one athlete. Kosovo and South Sudan are expected to debut in the Olympic Games.

Participating National Olympic Committees

In contrast to the exception during the 2012 Olympics, the International Gymnastics Federation announced that these Games will have a gala event for gymnastics.[37]

In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-man version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball, the board approved golf as a result of consultation. The final decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.[31][32] International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon said that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam, would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events.[33] The International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing,[34] but this decision was reversed in November.[35] The IOC announced In January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events, following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that the cycling's governing body had covered up doping.[36]

There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball, which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009.[30]

New sports

The 2016 Summer Olympic program features 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.


The opening ceremony will take place in the Maracanã Stadium on 5 August 2016.

Opening ceremony

The Games

The torch relay will begin its Brazilian journey on 3 May 2016. The torch relay will visit more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), after the Greek phase (Olympia to Athens), the Brazilian phase starts in the capital Brasília, and the last part to be held in Rio de Janeiro city).[29]

Torch relay

Football venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.

The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, and all will be sold in Brazilian Reals (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets will be sold; 200,000 tickets less compared to the 2012 Summer Olympics, because the size of many arenas is smaller. Ticket prices range from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets will be available for BRL 70 or less.[27][28] The street events could be watched along the route for free.


Note: The total investment in Olympic park and public transport in Rio to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[26]

Olympics/City Investment Public Private
Olympic Park R$5.6 billion R$1.46 billion R$4.18 billion
Public Transport R$24 billion R$13.7 billion R$10.3 billion
General Total R$29.6 billion


Note: The residual balance was used to fund the first months of operation of Rio 2016 Organizing Committee.[25]

¹TAM Airlines contributed with R$1,233,726.00 in the form of discounts in air tickets.

Revenue Private funds
EBX R$13,000,000.00
Eike Batista R$10,000,000.00
Bradesco R$3,500,000.00
Odebrecht R$3,300,000.00
Embratel R$3,000,000.00
TAM Airlines¹ R$1,233,726.00
General Total R$34,033,726.00

Private revenues

Revenue Public funds
Federal government R$47,402,531.75
State government R$3,617,556.00
Municipal government R$4,995,620.93
General Total R$56,015,708.68
Public revenues

Phase II – Candidate City

Revenue Federal Government State Government Total
Public Funds R$3,022,097.88 R$3,279,984.98 R$6,302,082.86
Private Funds R$2,804,822.16
General Total R$9,106,905.02

Phase I – Applicant City


On 9 May 2014, the London Evening Standard reported IOC vice-president John Coates calling Brazil’s preparations "the worst I’ve experienced" and went on to claim that construction and infrastructure projects were severely behind schedule. "The IOC has formed a special task force to try to speed up preparations but the situation is critical on the ground," the paper quoted him as saying, concluding that such an intervention was "unprecedented".[22] Coates' concerns had previously been reported elsewhere in the media.[23][24]

Rio de Janeiro Metro map, including the connection with the Olympic area in Barra da Tijuca.
Bus Rapid Transit in Rio de Janeiro International Airport. The system connects the airport with the Olympic areas.
BRT map to the Olympics.
Maracanãzinho Gymnasium, site of volleyball.

Concerns over completion

Rio de Janeiro is planning to pacify local neighbourhoods, or favelas. Community-based Police Pacification Units (UPPs) will be used to build trust in individual communities through the use of street patrols and civic work.[18] Moreover, The Regional Institute of Public Safety reported that the homicide rate of Rio de Janeiro for the first five months of 2012 was at its lowest in the past 21 years, with 10.9 homicides for every 100,000 habitants.[19][20] Nonetheless, despite the decline in homicides and human rights abuses, Human Rights Watch urged Brazil to investigate extrajudicial killings.[21]

The IOC, however, has expressed optimism regarding the ability of the city and the nation of Brazil to address these concerns, saying that seven years is enough time for Rio de Janeiro to clean up its crime problem.[13] IOC spokesman Mark Adams told The Associated Press, "we have confidence in their capacity to deliver a safe Games in seven years. Security is of course a very important aspect of any Olympic Games no matter where it is in the world. This is of course entirely under the national, regional and city authorities."[14][15][16] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former president of Brazil, noted that the city has hosted other high-profile events without major incidents, for example the 2007 Pan American Games.[17]

Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems have received more attention. A police helicopter was shot down over a favela during one of the city's many drug wars, and the pilot was killed in the incident.[11] Rio's mayor has admitted that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the Games from violence. However, he also said that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process.[12] The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games.


Rio's historical downtown is undergoing a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha.[10] It covers 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aims to redevelop the port area increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio’s competitiveness position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants.

Barra da Tijuca will host most of the venues of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. The rest will be located in three other zones: Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro; Barra da Tijuca will also house the Olympic Village.

Venues and infrastructure

[9]. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO.2012 Summer Paralympics Pestana withdrew later during the [8]