1994 Civil War in Yemen
|Yemeni Civil War (1994)|
Map of Yemen
|Republic of Yemen||Democratic Republic of Yemen|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Ali Abdullah Saleh|| Ali Salim al-Bayd
Ali Mohammed Assadi
|Casualties and losses|
|931 soldiers and civilians killed|
5,000 wounded (N. Yemen claim)
|6,000 fighters and 513 civilians|
The May–July 1994 civil war in Yemen was waged between the armed forces of the former Northern and Southern Yemeni states and their supporters. The war resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces and the flight into exile of many Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) leaders and other southern secessionists.
The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on May 22, 1990 with Ali Abdullah Saleh becoming President and Ali Salim al-Beidh Vice President. Greater Yemen had been politically united for the first time in centuries. A unification of the two country's political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Elections were held in April 1993.
Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh withdrew to Aden in August 1993 and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting.
An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman, Jordan on 20 February 1994, but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers.
On April 27, a major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it. On May 4, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden. President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country. Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed. South Yemen also fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians. Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.
Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY. In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24. The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on June 6, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well. The north entered Aden on July 4. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.
Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighboring states and received billions of dollars of equipment and financial assistance, mostly from Saudi Arabia, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.
President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures; legal cases against four — Ali Salim al-Beidh, Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, Abdal-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri, and Salih Munassar Al-Siyali — were prepared, for misappropriation of official funds.
YSP leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war. President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012.
As of 2007, a group called the South Yemen Movement calling for the secession of the south and the re-establishment of an independent southern state has grown in strength across many parts of south Yemen, leading to an increase in tensions and often violent clashes.
- Yemeni Civil War - 1994
- The Birth of Modern Yemen - The outbreak of war