1990 in spaceflight

1990 in spaceflight

1990in spaceflight
Orbital launches
First 1 January
Last 27 December
Total 121
Successes 114
Failures 5
Partial failures 2
National firsts
Satellite Pakistan
Space traveller Japan
Rockets
Maiden flights Ariane 4 40
Ariane 4 42P
Atlas I
Commercial Titan III
Delta II 6920
Delta II 7925
Long March 2E
Pegasus
Retirements Delta 4925
Long March 4A
Manned flights
Orbital 9
Total travellers 39


Launches

Skynet 4A, Decay:NA" JCSAT 2, Decay:NA" STS-32, Decay:20 January" Leasat 5, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2055(Zenit-8), Decay:29 January" Kosmos 2056(Strela-2M), Decay:NA" SPOT 2, Decay:NA" UOSAT 3, Decay:NA" UOSAT 4, Decay:NA" PACSAT, Decay:NA" Microsat 2, Decay:NA" Microsat 3, Decay:NA" Microsat 4, Decay:NA" Molniya 3-53L, Decay:23 June 2003" Hiten, Decay:11 April 1993" Hagoromo, Decay:NA" GPS II-6(USA-50), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2057(Yantar-4K2), Decay:19 March 1990" Kosmos 2058(Tselina-R), Decay:NA" DFH-2A-4, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2059(Taifun-2), Decay:12 November" MOS 1B, Decay:NA" DEBUT, Decay:NA" JAS-1B, Decay:NA" Soyuz TM-9, Decay:9 August" LACE(USA-51), Decay:24 May 2000" RME(USA-52), Decay:24 May 1992" Raduga 25, Decay:NA" Superbird B, Decay:NA" BS 2X, Decay:NA" Nadezhda 2, Decay:NA" Okean 2, Decay:NA" STS-36, Decay:4 March" USA-53(Misty-1), Decay:NA" Progress M-3, Decay:28 April" Intelsat 603, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2060(US-P), Decay:1 September 1991" Kosmos 2061(Parus), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2062(Zenit-8), Decay:28 April" GPS II-7(USA-54), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2063(Oko), Decay:NA" Ofeq-2, Decay:NA" Yantar-4K2, Decay:3 April" Pegsat, Decay:14 November 1998" USA-55(SECS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2064(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2065(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2066(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2067(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2068(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2069(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2070(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2071(Strela-1M), Decay:NA" AsiaSat 1, Decay:NA" USA-56(POGS), Decay:NA" USA-57(TEX), Decay:NA" USA-58(SCE), Decay:NA" /Foton 6, Decay:27 April" Kosmos 2072(Yantar-4KS1), Decay:22 November" Palapa B2R, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2073(Zenit-8), Decay:28 April" Kosmos 2074(Parus), Decay:NA" STS-31, Decay:29 April" /Hubble Space Telescope, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2075(Taifun-2), Decay:20 February 1992" Molniya 1-77, Decay:25 February 2005" Kosmos 2076(Oko), Decay:NA" Progress 42, Decay:27 May" Kosmos 2077(Yantar-4K2), Decay:4 July" MacSat 1, Decay:NA" MacSat 2, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2078(Yantar-1KFT), Decay:28 June" Kosmos 2079(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2080(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2081(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2082(Tselina-2), Decay:NA" Resurs-F6, Decay:14 June" Kristall, Decay:23 March 2001" ROSAT, Decay:23 October 2011" USA-59(SLDCOM), Decay:NA" USA-60(NOSS-2), Decay:NA" USA-61(NOSS-2), Decay:NA" USA-62(NOSS-2), Decay:NA" INSAT 1D, Decay:NA" Molniya 3-47L, Decay:26 February 2006" Kosmos 2083(Zenit-8), Decay:3 July 1990" Gorizont 20, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2084(Oko), Decay:NA" Intelsat 604, Decay:NA" Meteor-2-19, Decay:NA" Yantar-4K2, Decay:3 July" /Gamma, Decay:28 February 1992" Badr-1, Decay:8 December" HS-601, Decay:NA" Resurs-F7, Decay:16 August" Kosmos 2085(Geizer 17L), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2086(Zenit-8), Decay:3 August" TDF-2, Decay:NA" DFS-2, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2087(Oko), Decay:NA" CRRES, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2088(Geo-IK), Decay:NA" Soyuz TM-10, Decay:10 December" GPS II-8(USA-63), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2089(Yantar-4K2), Decay:1 October" Kosmos 2090(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2091(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2092(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2093(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2094(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2095(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Ekran-M, Decay:9 August" Molniya 1-78, Decay:6 July 2007" Progress M-4, Decay:20 September" Resurs-F8, Decay:1 September" Marco Polo 2, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2096(US-P), Decay:30 August 1992" Kosmos 2097(Oko), Decay:NA" BS 3A, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2098(Taifun-1), Decay:NA" Skynet 4C, Decay:NA" Eutelsat 2F1, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2099(Zenit-8), Decay:14 September" Feng Yun 1B, Decay:NA" Qi Qiu Weixing 1, Decay:11 March 1991" Qi Qiu Weixing 2, Decay:24 July 1991" Resurs-F9, Decay:21 September" Kosmos 2100(Parus), Decay:NA" Molniya 3-54L, Decay:NA" Progress M-5, Decay:28 November" Meteor-2-20, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2101(Ortlets-1), Decay:30 November" GPS II-9(USA-64), Decay:NA" Tselina-2, Decay:NA" FSW-1-3, Decay:13 October" STS-41, Decay:10 October" /Ulysses, Decay:NA" SBS 6, Decay:NA" Galaxy 6, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2102(Yantar-4K2), Decay:12 December" Inmarsat 2F1, Decay:NA" Gorizont 21, Decay:NA" USA-65(DSP-15), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2103(US-P), Decay:3 April 1991" STS-38, Decay:20 November" USA-67(SDS-2), Decay:NA" Prowler, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2104(Zenit-8), Decay:4 December" Kosmos 2105(Oko), Decay:16 January 2008" Satcom C1, Decay:NA" GStar 4, Decay:NA" Molniya 1-79, Decay:30 August 2005" Gorizont 22, Decay:NA" GPS IIA-1(USA-66), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2106(Tselina-D), Decay:7 April 2000" USA-68(DMSP-5D2 F10), Decay:NA" STS-35, Decay:10 December" Soyuz TM-11, Decay:26 May 1991" Kosmos 2107(US-P), Decay:6 April 1992" Kosmos 2108(Yantar-4K2), Decay:28 January 1991" Kosmos 2109(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2110(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2111(GLONASS), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2112(Strela-2M), Decay:NA" Raduga 26, Decay:NA" Kosmos 2113(Yantar-4KS1), Decay:11 June 1991" Kosmos 2114(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2115(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2116(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2117(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2118(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2119(Strela-3), Decay:NA" Kosmos 2120(Zenit-8), Decay:17 January 1991" Raduga-1-2, Decay:NA"
Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

1 January
00:07
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Skynet 4A MoD Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
JCSAT 2 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Commercial Titan III
9 January
12:35
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39A
STS-32 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment and retrieval 20 January
06:35
Successful
Leasat 5 NASA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval mission
Leasat 5 retired in February 1998
17 January
14:38
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2055 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 29 January Successful
18 January
12:57
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2056 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
22 January
01:35
Ariane 4 (40) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
SPOT 2 CNES Sun-synchronous Earth observation In orbit Operational
UOSAT 3 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
UOSAT 4 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
PACSAT AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Microsat 2 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Microsat 3 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Microsat 4 AMSAT Sun-synchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (40)
UOSAT 4 ceased transmitting after 5 hours
23 January
02:52
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-53L Molniya Communications 23 June 2003 Successful
24 January
11:46
Mu-3S-II Uchinoura ISAS
Hiten ISAS Lunar probe 11 April 1993 Successful
Hagoromo ISAS Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Spacecraft failure
First Japanese lunar mission
Hagoromo suffered a transmitter malfunction prior to selenocentric orbit injection
24 January
22:55
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-6 (USA-50) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
25 January
17:15
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2057 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 19 March 1990 Successful
30 January
11:20
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2058 (Tselina-R) Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational

February

4 February
12:27
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
DFH-2 A-4 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
6 February
16:30
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 2059 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Radar calibration 12 November Successful
7 February
01:33
H-I Tanegashima LA-N Mitsubishi
MOS 1B NASDA Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
DEBUT Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
JAS-1B Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
11 February
06:16
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-9 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-9 9 August
07:33
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
14 February
16:15
Delta II 6920-8 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
LACE (USA-51) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration 24 May 2000 Successful
RME (USA-52) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration 24 May 1992 Successful
Maiden flight of Delta II 6920
15 February
07:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Raduga 25 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 February
23:17
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Superbird B SCC Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Communications T+ seconds Launch failure
BS 2X Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Communications
Blocked water line caused rocket explosion
27 February
20:59
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Nadezhda 2 Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
28 February
00:55
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32/2
Okean 2 Low Earth Earth science In orbit Operational
28 February
07:50
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A
STS-36 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 4 March
03:08
Successful
USA-53 (Misty-1) NRO Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
28 February
23:10
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-3 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 28 April
00:52
Successful

March

14 March
11:52
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Intelsat 603 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Partial launch failure
Due to non-separation of second stage Intelsat 603 was released from its perigee motor into a Low Earth orbit. Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-49 attached a new perigee motor which boosted the satellite to geosynchronous orbit.
14 March
15:27
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2060 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 1 September 1991 Successful
20 March
00:25
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2061 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
22 March
07:20
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2062 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 April Successful
26 March
02:45
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-7 (USA-54) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Spacecraft failure
Signal anomaly on 21 May 1996 made the satellite unusable in the GPS constellation.
27 March
16:40
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2063 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational

April

3 April
12:02
Shavit Palmachim
Ofeq-2 Low Earth (retrograde) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
3 April Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43
Yantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 April Launch failure
5 April
19:10
Pegasus Balls 8 Edwards Orbital Sciences
Pegsat NASA Low Earth Space Physics 14 November 1998 Successful
USA-55 (SECS) DoD Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Pegasus
6 April
03:13
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2064 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2065 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2066 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2067 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2068 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2069 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2070 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2071 (Strela-1M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
7 April
13:30
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
AsiaSat 1 AsiaSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Originally launched as Westar 6 by Space Shuttle Challenger in February 1984 on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A. Westar 6 was refurbished and sold to AsiaSat who renamed it AsiaSat 1.
11 April
15:00
Atlas-E/Altair-3A Vandenberg SLC-3W Lockheed
USA-56 (POGS) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
USA-57 (TEX) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
USA-58 (SCE) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
11 April
17:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/3
/Foton 6 CNES Low Earth Microgravity research 27 April
06:15
Successful
13 April
18:53
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2072 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 22 November Successful
13 April
22:28
Delta II 6925-8 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Palapa B2R Telkom Indonesia Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Originally launched in February 1984 as Palapa B2 by Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A.
17 April
08:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2073 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 April Successful
20 April
18:41
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2074 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
24 April
12:33
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39B
STS-31 NASA Low Earth HST deployment 29 April
13:49
Successful
/Hubble Space Telescope NASA/ESA Low Earth Space Telescope In orbit Operational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
25 April
13:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 2075 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Target 20 February 1992 Successful
26 April
01:37
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-77 Molniya Communications 25 February 2005 Successful
28 April
11:37
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2076 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational

May

5 May
20:44
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress 42 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 27 May
12:27
Successful
Final flight of baseline Progress spacecraft
7 May
18:39
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2077 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 4 July Successful
9 May
17:50
Scout G-1 Vandenberg SLC-5
MacSat 1 DARPA Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
MacSat 2 DARPA Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
15 May
09:55
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2078 (Yantar-1KFT) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 June Successful
19 May
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/40
Kosmos 2079 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2080 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2081 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
22 May
05:14
Zenit-2 Baikonur Site 45/2
Kosmos 2082 (Tselina-2) Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
First launch from Site 45/2
29 May
07:19
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4
Resurs-F6 Low Earth Reconnaissance 14 June Successful
31 May
10:33
Proton-K Baikonur Site 200/39
Kristall Low Earth (Mir) Mir module 23 March 2001
05:50
Successful

June

1 June
21:48
Delta II 6920-10 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
ROSAT Low Earth Astronomy 23 October 2011 Successful
8 June
05:21
Titan IVA (405) Cape Canaveral LC-41 Martin Marietta
USA-59 (SLDCOM) US Air Force Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
USA-60 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
USA-61 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
USA-62 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
12 June
05:52
Delta 4925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
INSAT 1D ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Final flight of Delta 4925
13 June
01:07
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-47L Molniya Communications 26 February 2006 Successful
19 June
08:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2083 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 July 1990 Successful
20 June
23:36
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Site 200/40
Gorizont 20 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
21 June
20:45
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk Site 43/3
Kosmos 2084 (Oko) Intended: Molniya
Achieved: Low Earth
Early warning In orbit Partial Failure
Placed in an incorrect orbit and the satellite did not communicate with the ground.
23 June
11:19
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Intelsat 604 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
27 June
22:30
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Meteor-2-19 Low Earth Earth Sciences In orbit Successful

July

3 July Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2
Yantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 July Launch failure
11 July
10:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
/Gamma CNES Low Earth Astronomy 28 February 1992 Successful
16 July
00:40
Long March 2E Xichang LC-2
Badr-1 SUPARCO Low Earth Communications 8 December Successful
HS-601 Low Earth Boilerplate spacecraft In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Long March 2E
17 July
09:29
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/3
Resurs-F7 Low Earth Reconnaissance 16 August Successful
18 July
21:46
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Kosmos 2085 (Geizer 17L) Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
20 July
08:40
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2086 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 3 August Successful
24 July
22:25
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
TDF-2 Telediffusion Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
DFS-2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
25 July
18:13
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2087 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
25 July
19:21
Atlas I Cape Canaveral LC-36B
CRRES US Air Force Geosynchronous transfer Space Physics In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Atlas I
Contact with spacecraft lost on 12 October 1991 due to onboard battery failure.
30 July
00:06
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32/1
Kosmos 2088 (Geo-IK) Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful

August

1 August
09:32
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-10 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-7 10 December
06:08
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
2 August
05:39
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-8 (USA-63) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
3 August
19:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2089 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 1 October Successful
8 August
04:15
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2090 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2091 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2092 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2093 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2094 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2095 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
9 August
20:18
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Ekran-M Intended: Geosynchronous Communications 9 August Launch failure
10 August
20:18
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-78 Molniya Communications 6 July 2007 Successful
15 August
04:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-4 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 20 September
11:42
Successful
16 August
09:54
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4
Resurs-F8 Low Earth Reconnaissance 1 September Successful
18 August
00:42
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Marco Polo 2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
23 August
16:17
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2096 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 30 August 1992 Successful
28 August
07:49
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2097 (Oko) Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational
28 August
09:05
H-1 Tanegashima LA-N Mitsubishi
BS 3A Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
28 August
15:45
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2098 (Taifun-1) Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful
30 August
22:46
Ariane 4 (44LP) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Skynet 4C MoD Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Eutelsat 2F1 Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
31 August
08:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2099 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 14 September Successful

September

3 September
00:53
Long March 4A Taiyuan LC-1
Feng Yun 1B Sun-synchronous Weather satellite In orbit Successful
Qi Qiu Weixing 1 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research 11 March 1991 Successful
Qi Qiu Weixing 2 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research 24 July 1991 Successful
Final flight of Long March 4A
7 September
11:59
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2
Resurs-F9 Low Earth Reconnaissance 21 September Successful
14 September
05:59
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2100 (Parus) Low Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
20 September
20:16
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-54L Molniya Communications In orbit Operational
27 September
10:37
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-5 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics 28 November
11:04
Successful
28 September
07:30
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Meteor-2-20 Low Earth Earth Science In orbit Successful

October

1 October
11:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 2101 (Ortlets-1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 30 November Successful
1 October
21:56
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-9 (USA-64) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
4 October Zenit-2 Baikonur Site 45/2
Tselina-2 Intended: Low Earth ELINT T+5 seconds Launch failure
First stage engine failure five seconds after launch. Subsequent explosion completely destroyed the launch pad, which was not rebuilt.
5 October
06:14
Long March 2C Jiuquan LA-2B
FSW-1-3 Low Earth Reconnaissance 13 October
03:59
Successful
6 October
11:47
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39B
STS-41 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 10 October Successful
/Ulysses ESA/NASA Heliocentric Solar probe In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
12 October
22:58
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
SBS 6 SBS Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Galaxy 6 PanAmSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
16 October
19:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2102 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 12 December Successful
30 October
23:16
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Inmarsat 2F1 Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

November

3 November
14:40
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Gorizont 21 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
13 November
00:37
Titan IVA (402)/IUS Cape Canaveral LC-41 Martin Marietta
USA-65 (DSP-15) US Air Force Geosynchronous Early warning In orbit Operational
14 November
06:33
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2103 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 3 April 1991 Successful
15 November
23:48
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A
STS-38 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment 20 November
21:42
Successful
USA-67 (SDS-2) NRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Prowler NRO Geosynchronous Satellite inspection
Technology
In orbit Successful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
16 November
16:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2104 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 4 December Successful
20 November
02:33
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2105 (Oko) Molniya Early warning 16 January 2008 Successful
20 November
23:11
Ariane 4 (42P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Satcom C1 GE Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
GStar 4 Spacenet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (42P)
23 November
03:51
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-79 Molniya Communications 30 August 2005 Successful
23 November
13:22
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Gorizont 22 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
26 November
21:39
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS IIA-1 (USA-66) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Delta II 7925
28 November
16:33
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2106 (Tselina-D) Low Earth ELINT 7 April 2000 Successful

December

1 December
15:57
Atlas-E/Star-37 Vandenberg SLC-3W Lockheed
USA-68 (DMSP-5D2 F10) US Air Force Sun-synchronous Weather satellite In orbit Successful
2 December
06:49
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39B
STS-35 NASA Low Earth Astronomy 10 December
23:54
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 7 astronauts
2 December
08:13
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-11 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-8 26 May 1991
10:04
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 3 cosmonauts including the first Japanese space traveler.
4 December
00:48
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2107 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance 6 April 1992 Successful
4 December
18:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2108 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance 28 January 1991 Successful
8 December
02:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Kosmos 2109 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2110 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2111 (GLONASS) Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
10 December
07:54
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2112 (Strela-2M) Low Earth Communications In orbit Successful
20 December
11:35
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Raduga 26 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 December
06:20
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2113 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance 11 June 1991 Successful
22 December
07:28
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2114 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2115 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2116 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2117 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2118 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2119 (Strela-3) Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
26 December
11:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2120 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance 17 January 1991 Successful
27 December
11:08
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Raduga-1-2 Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
10 February Galileo Flyby of Venus Gravity assist; Closest approach: 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi)
19 March Hiten Flyby of the Moon
19 March Hagoromo Selenocentric orbit injection
10 August Magellan Cytherean orbit injection
8 December Galileo 1st flyby of the Earth Gravity assist; Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
8 January
20:23
2 hours
56 minutes
23:19 Mir EO-5 Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Installed new star tracker sensors launched in the Kvant-2 module onto Kvant-1.
11 January
18:01
2 hours
54 minutes
20:55 Mir EO-5 Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Closed out experimental racks, either retrieving for return to earth, or discarding into space. Modified the docking node for the arrival of the Kristall module.
26 January
12:09
3 hours
2 minutes
15:11 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Tested the new Orlan-DMA spacesuit. This spacewalk team was the first use of the EVA airlock hatch on the Kvant-2 module. During the spacewalk a mooring post was attached outside the airlock, and a Kurs antenna was removed to enable future EVAs.
1 February
08:15
4 hours
59 minutes
13:14 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Tested the SPK "flying armchair", analogous to NASA's MMU. The SPK did not fly free, but remained tethered to Kvant-2 during the tests.
5 February
06:08
3 hours
45 minutes
09:53 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Conducted more tests of the SPK. Viktorenko reached as far as 45 metres (148 ft) from Mir.
17 July
13:06
7 hours
15 minutes
20:22 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Anatoly Solovyev
Aleksandr Balandin
At the start of their EVA to repair torn insulation on the Soyuz TM-9, Solovyev and Balandin damaged the hatch on Kvant-2 by opening it before the airlock was completely depressurized. The spacewalking team repaired the insulation on Soyuz, but time constraints required returning to Kvant-2 before they collected their tools and ladders. Unable to securely close the damaged hatch, they used the center section of Kvant-2 as a back-up airlock.
26 July
11:15
3 hours
31 minutes
14:46 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Anatoly Solovyev
Aleksandr Balandin
Transmitted images of the damaged hatch to TsUP, recovered the ladders and tools left outside earlier and removed debris lodged in the hinge of the airlock hatch, allowing the hatch to close and seal for repressurization.
29 October
21:45
2 hours
45 minutes
30 October
00:30
Mir EO-7
Kvant-2
Gennadi Manakov
Gennady Strekalov
After removing insulation around the damaged Kvant-2 hatch, they found the hatch to be more heavily damaged than previously understood. Although unable to completely repair the hatch, they added hardware to the hatch.

References

  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report". 
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica". 
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches". Gunter's Space Page. 
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA. 
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report". Jonathan's Space Page. 
  • "Mission Set Database". NASA GSFC. 
  • "NASASpaceFlight.com". 
  • "Launch Logs". Orbital Report News Agency. 
  • "Space Calendar". NASA JPL. 
  • "Southwest Space Archive". 
  • "Launch Forecast". Space.com. 
  • "Spaceflight Now". 
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive". 
  • "U.S. Space Objects Registry". 
  • "Хроника освоения космоса ('Chronicle of space exploration')" (in Russian). Cosmoworld.ru. 
Generic references:

Footnotes