UN member states
- Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
- The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
A recommendation for admission from the Security Council requires affirmative votes from at least nine of the council's fifteen members, with none of the five permanent members voting against. The Security Council's recommendation must then be subsequently approved in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority vote.
In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and currently all UN members are sovereign states (although a few members were not sovereign when they joined the UN). Because a state can only be admitted to the UN by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, a number of states that may be considered sovereign states according to the Montevideo Convention criteria are not members because the UN does not consider them to possess sovereignty, mainly due to the lack of international recognition or opposition from certain members.
In addition to the member states, the UN also invites non-member states (currently two: the Holy See and Palestine), intergovernmental organizations, and other international organizations and entities whose statehood or sovereignty are not precisely defined, to become observers at the General Assembly, allowing them to participate and speak, but not vote, in General Assembly meetings.
- 1 Original members
- 2 Current members
- 3 Former members
- 4 Suspension, expulsion, and withdrawal of members
- 5 Observers and non-members
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, after ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a majority of the other signatories. A total of 51 original members (or founding members) joined that year; 50 of them signed the Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco on 26 June 1945, while Poland, which was not represented at the conference, signed it on 15 October 1945.
Among the original members, 49 are either still UN members or had their memberships in the UN continued by a successor state (see table below); for example, the membership of the Soviet Union was continued by the Russian Federation after its dissolution (see the section Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The other two original members, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (i.e., the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), had been dissolved and their memberships in the UN not continued by any one successor state (see the sections Former members: Czechoslovakia and Former members: Yugoslavia).
At the time of UN's founding, the seat of China in the UN was held by the Republic of China, but as a result of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, it is now held by the People's Republic of China (see the section Former members: Republic of China).
A number of the original members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, and only gained full independence later:
- Belarus (then the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) and Ukraine (then the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) were both constituent republics of the Soviet Union, until gaining full independence in 1991.
- India (whose territory at that time, before the Partition of India, also included the present-day territories of Pakistan and Bangladesh) was under British colonial rule, until gaining full independence in 1947.
- The Philippines (then the Philippine Commonwealth) was a commonwealth with the United States, until gaining full independence in 1946.
- New Zealand, while de facto sovereign at that time, "only gained full capacity to enter into relations with other states in 1947 when it passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. This occurred 16 years after the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster Act in 1931 that recognised New Zealand's autonomy. If judged by the Montevideo Convention criteria, New Zealand did not achieve full de jure statehood until 1947."
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United Nations Member States
The alphabetical order by the member states' official designations is used to determine the seating arrangement of the General Assembly sessions, where a draw is held each year to select a member state as the starting point. Several members use their full official names in their official designations and thus are sorted out of order from their common names: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Moldova, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (a provisional reference used for all purposes within the UN, and listed under T), and the United Republic of Tanzania.
The member states can be sorted by their official designations and dates of admission by clicking on the buttons in the header of the columns. See related sections on former members by clicking on the links in the column See also.
Original members are listed withand in bold.
|Member state||Date of admission||See also|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Armenia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Australia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Australia and the United Nations|
|Azerbaijan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Belarus||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Benin [note 1]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Bolivia (Plurinational State of) [note 2]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|Brazil||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Brazil and the United Nations|
|Burkina Faso [note 3]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Cambodia [note 4]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Cameroon [note 5]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Canada||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Canada and the United Nations|
|Central African Republic [note 6]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|China||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Republic of China and China and the United Nations|
|Congo [note 7]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo [note 8]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Côte d'Ivoire [note 9]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Croatia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|Czech Republic||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Czechoslovakia|
|Egypt||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: United Arab Republic|
|Estonia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Fiji||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Fiji and the United Nations|
|France||Template:Dts/outdmy1||France and the United Nations|
|Gambia [note 10]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Georgia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Germany||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: German Democratic Republic and Germany and the United Nations|
|India||Template:Dts/outdmy1||India and the United Nations|
|Indonesia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966) and Indonesia and the United Nations|
|Iran (Islamic Republic of) [note 11]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Israel||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations|
|Japan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Japan and the United Nations|
|Kazakhstan [note 12]||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Republic of Korea||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Kyrgyzstan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic [note 13]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Latvia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Lithuania||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|Madagascar [note 15]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Malaysia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Federation of Malaya|
|Maldives [note 16]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Marshall Islands||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Marshall Islands and the United Nations|
|Mexico||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Mexico and the United Nations|
|Micronesia (Federated States of)||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Federated States of Micronesia and the United Nations|
|Republic of Moldova [note 17]||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Montenegro||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|Myanmar [note 18]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|New Zealand||Template:Dts/outdmy1||New Zealand and the United Nations|
|Pakistan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Pakistan and the United Nations|
|Papua New Guinea||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Philippines [note 19]||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Philippines and the United Nations|
|Russian Federation||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Soviet Union and the United Nations and Russia and the United Nations|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis [note 20]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Sao Tome and Principe [note 21]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Serbia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|Singapore||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Malaysia|
|Slovakia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Czechoslovakia|
|Slovenia||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yugoslavia|
|South Africa [note 22]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Sri Lanka [note 23]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Suriname [note 24]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Syrian Arab Republic||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: United Arab Republic|
|Tajikistan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|United Republic of Tanzania||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Tanganyika and Zanzibar|
|Thailand [note 25]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Trinidad and Tobago and the United Nations|
|Turkmenistan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Tuvalu||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Tuvalu and the United Nations|
|Ukraine||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|United Arab Emirates||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||Template:Dts/outdmy1||United Kingdom and the United Nations|
|United States of America||Template:Dts/outdmy1||United States and the United Nations|
|Uzbekistan||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Vanuatu||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Vanuatu and the United Nations|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) [note 26]||Template:Dts/outdmy1|
|Yemen||Template:Dts/outdmy1||Former members: Yemen and Democratic Yemen|
Republic of China
The Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. In 1949, as a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led ROC government lost effective control of mainland China and relocated to Taiwan, and the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), declared on 1 October 1949, took control of mainland China. The UN was notified on 18 November 1949 of the formation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; however, the Government of the Republic of China continued to represent China at the UN, despite the small size of the ROC's jurisdiction of Taiwan and a number of smaller islands compared to the PRC's jurisdiction of mainland China. As both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate representative of China, proposals to effect a change in the representation of China in the UN were not approved for the next two decades, as the ROC was still recognized as the sole legitimate representative of China by a majority of UN members.
By the 1970s, a shift had occurred in international diplomatic circles and the PRC had gained the upper hand in international diplomatic relations and recognition count. On 25 October 1971, the 21st time the United Nations General Assembly debated on the PRC's admission into the UN, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which it recognized that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council," and decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it." This effectively transferred the seat of China in the UN, including its permanent seat on the Security Council, from the ROC to the PRC, and expelled the ROC from the UN. From the United Nations' perspective the "Republic of China" is not a former member. No UN member was expelled in 1971. Rather, the credentials of one Chinese delegation (from Taipei) were rejected and the credentials of another Chinese delegation (from Beijing) were accepted.
Bids for readmission as the representative of Taiwan
Between 1993 and 2007, the ROC repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the UN as the representative of Taiwan, instead of as the representative of China, using the designation "Republic of China on Taiwan" (used by the Kuomintang-led administration under Lee Teng-hui), "Republic of China (Taiwan)" (used by the Democratic Progressive Party-led administration under Chen Shui-bian), or "Taiwan" (used by the administration under Chen Shui-bian for the first time in 2007). In its application, the ROC government has called on the international community to "recognize the right of the 23 million people of Taiwan to representation in the United Nations system". However, all fifteen attempts were denied, either because the petition failed to get sufficient votes to get on the formal agenda, or because the application was rejected by the UN, due primarily to the opposition of the PRC.
Responding to the ROC's application in 2007, which was rejected by the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs citing General Assembly Resolution 2758, Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon stated that:
With the understanding of the Governor and the Chairman, I will briefly mention that membership into the UN ultimately needs to be decided by the Member States of the United Nations. Membership is given to a sovereign country. The position of the United Nations is that the People's Republic of China is representing the whole of China as the sole and legitimate representative Government of China. The decision until now about the wish of the people in Taiwan to join the United Nations has been decided on that basis. The resolution (General Assembly Resolution 2758) that you just mentioned is clearly mentioning that the Government of China is the sole and legitimate Government and the position of the United Nations is that Taiwan is part of China.
Responding to the UN's rejection of its application, the ROC government has stated that Taiwan is not now nor has it ever been under the jurisdiction of the PRC, and that since General Assembly Resolution 2758 did not clarify the issue of Taiwan's representation in the UN, it does not prevent Taiwan's participation in the UN as an independent sovereign nation. The ROC government also criticized Ban for asserting that Taiwan is part of China and returning the application without passing it to the Security Council or the General Assembly, contrary to UN's standard procedure (Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council, Chapter X, Rule 59). On the other hand, the PRC government, which has stated that Taiwan is part of China and firmly opposes the application of any Taiwan authorities to join the UN either as a member or an observer, praised that UN's decision "was made in accordance with the UN Charter and Resolution 2758 of the UN General Assembly, and showed the UN and its member states' universal adherence to the one-China principle".
In May 2009, the Department of Health of the Republic of China was invited by the World Health Organization to attend the 62nd World Health Assembly as an observer under the name "Chinese Taipei". This was the ROC's first participation in an event organized by a UN-affiliated agency since 1971, as a result of the improved cross-strait relations since Ma Ying-jeou became the President of the Republic of China a year before.
The Republic of China is Template:Numrec and the Holy See.
Czechoslovakia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, with its name changed to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic on 20 April 1990. Upon the imminent dissolution of Czechoslovakia, in a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as successor states, would apply for membership in the UN. Neither state sought sole successor state status. Both states were admitted to the UN on 19 January 1993.
German Democratic Republic
Both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) were admitted to the UN on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the territory of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany, today simply known as Germany. Consequently, the Federal Republic of Germany continued being a member of the UN while the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist.
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957. On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.
Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Tanganyika was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar was admitted to the UN on 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of the Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states merged to form the single member "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar", with its name changed to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Upon the imminent dissolution of the USSR, in a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other UN organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The other fourteen independent states established from the former Soviet Republics were all admitted to the UN:
- The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945, together with the USSR. After declaring independence, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic changed its name to Ukraine on 24 August 1991, and on 19 September 1991, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic informed the UN that it had changed its name to Belarus.
- Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were admitted to the UN on 17 September 1991, after regaining independence before the dissolution of the USSR.
- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan were admitted to the UN on 2 March 1992.
- Georgia was admitted to the UN on 31 July 1992.
United Arab Republic
Both Egypt and Syria joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership in the UN. Egypt continued as a UN member under the name of the United Arab Republic, until it reverted to its original name on 2 September 1971. Syria changed its name to the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 1971.
Yemen and Democratic Yemen
Yemen (i.e., North Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 30 September 1947; Southern Yemen (i.e., South Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1967, with its name changed to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on 30 November 1970, and was later referred to as Democratic Yemen. On 22 May 1990, the two states merged to form the Republic of Yemen, which continued as a single member under the name Yemen.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, referred to as Yugoslavia, joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. By 1992, it had been effectively dissolved into five independent states, which were all subsequently admitted to the UN:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia were admitted to the UN on 22 May 1992.
- Macedonia was admitted to the UN on 8 April 1993, being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the UN as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name.
- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (name later changed to Serbia and Montenegro) was admitted to the UN on 1 November 2000.
Due to the dispute over its legal successor states, the member state "Yugoslavia", referring to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, remained on the official roster of UN members for many years after its effective dissolution. Following the admission of all five states as new UN members, "Yugoslavia" was removed from the official roster of UN members.
The government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, established on 28 April 1992 by the remaining Yugoslav republics of Montenegro and Serbia, claimed itself as the legal successor state of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; however, on 30 May 1992, United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 was adopted, by which it imposed international sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia due to its role in the Yugoslav Wars, and noted that "the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted," and on 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly". The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia refused to comply with the resolution for many years, but following the ousting of President Slobodan Milošević from office, it applied for membership, and was admitted to the UN on 1 November 2000. On 4 February 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had its official name changed to Serbia and Montenegro, following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. In a letter dated on the same day, the President of Serbia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of Serbia and Montenegro in the UN was being continued by Serbia, following Montenegro's declaration of independence, in accordance with the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro was admitted to the UN on 28 June 2006.
In the aftermath of the Kosovo War, the territory of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia, was put under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo on 10 June 1999. On 17 February 2008 it declared independence, but this has not been recognised by Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the UN, but is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group, both specialized agencies in the United Nations System. The Republic of Kosovo is Template:Numrec, including three of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (France, the United Kingdom, and the United States), while the other two—China and Russia—do not recognise Kosovo. On 22 July 2010, the International Court of Justice, the primary judicial organ of the UN, issued an advisory opinion, ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation of international law.
Suspension, expulsion, and withdrawal of members
A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.
From Article 6:
A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
Since its inception, no member state has been suspended or expelled from the UN under Articles 5 and 6. However, in a few cases, states were suspended or expelled from participating in UN activities by means other than Articles 5 and 6:
- On 25 October 1971, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which recognized the People's Republic of China instead of the Republic of China as the legitimate representative of China in the UN and effectively expelled the Republic of China from the UN in 1971 (see the section Former members: Republic of China). This act did not constitute as the expulsion of a member state under Article 6, as this would have required Security Council approval and been subjected to vetoes by its permanent members, which included the Republic of China itself and the United States, which at that time still recognized the Republic of China.
- In October 1974, the Security Council considered a draft resolution that would have recommended that the General Assembly immediately expel South Africa from the UN, in compliance with Article 6 of the United Nations Charter, due to its apartheid policies. However, the resolution was not adopted because of vetoes by three permanent members of the Security Council: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In response, the General Assembly decided to suspend South Africa from participation in the work of the Assembly's 29th session on 12 November 1974; however, South Africa was not formally suspended under Article 5. The suspension lasted until the General Assembly welcomed South Africa back to full participation in the UN on 23 June 1994, following its successful democratic elections earlier that year.
- On 28 April 1992, the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established, by the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly". It did not apply for membership until Slobodan Milošević was ousted from the presidency and was admitted on 1 November 2000 (see the section Former members: Yugoslavia).
Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966)
Since the inception of the UN, only one member state (excluding those that dissolved or merged with other member states) has unilaterally withdrawn from the UN. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, and in response to the election of Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, in a letter dated 20 January 1965, Indonesia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that it had decided "at this stage and under the present circumstances" to withdraw from the UN. However, following the overthrow of the Indonesian regime led by President Sukarno, in a telegram dated 19 September 1966, Indonesia notified the Secretary-General of its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities starting with the twenty-first session of the General Assembly". On 28 September 1966, the United Nations General Assembly took note of the decision of the Government of Indonesia and the President invited the representatives of that country to take their seats in the Assembly.
Unlike suspension and expulsion, no express provision is made in the United Nations Charter of whether or how a member can legally withdraw from the UN (largely to prevent the threat of withdrawal from being used as a form of political blackmail, or to evade obligations under the Charter, similar to withdrawals that weakened the UN's predecessor, the League of Nations), or on whether a request for readmission by a withdrawn member should be treated the same as an application for membership, i.e., requiring Security Council as well as General Assembly approval. Indonesia's return to the UN would suggest that this is not required; however, scholars have argued that the course of action taken by the General Assembly was not in accordance with the Charter from a legal point of view.
Observers and non-members
- The Holy See holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City and maintains diplomatic relations with 180 other states. It has been an observer state since 6 April 1964, and gained all the rights of full membership except voting on 1 July 2004.
- Palestine was recognized as a "non-member state" on 29 November 2012, when the UN General Assembly passed United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 by a vote of 138 to 9, with 41 abstentions. The Palestine Liberation Organization was previously granted observer status as a ""non-member entity"" on 22 November 1974. The change in status was described by The Independent as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine". Acknowledging the proclamation of the State of Palestine by the Palestine National Council on 15 November 1988, the United Nations General Assembly decided that, effective as of 15 December 1988, the designation "Palestine" should be used in place of the designation "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the United Nations System. On 23 September 2011, Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas submitted the Palestinian application for UN membership to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon; the application has yet to be voted on by the Security Council. On 31 October 2011, the General Assembly of UNESCO voted to admit Palestine as a member, becoming the first UN agency to admit Palestine as a full member. The Palestinian territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, occupied by Israel with parts of them governed by the Palestinian National Authority, have historically been referred to by the UN as the "Occupied Palestinian Territory" and other similar designations, and still are in many cases, although the UN recently permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations', and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports, whilst it instructed its diplomats to officially represent 'The State of Palestine', as opposed to the 'Palestine National Authority'. Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents".
A number of states were also granted observer status before being admitted to the UN as full members (see United Nations General Assembly observers for the full list). The most recent case of an observer state becoming a member state was Switzerland, which was admitted in 2002.
A European Union institution, the European Commission, was granted observer status at the UNGA through Resolution 3208 in 1974. The Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 resulted in the delegates being accredited directly to the EU. It was accorded full rights in the General Assembly, bar the right to vote and put forward candidates, via UNGA Resolution A/RES/65/276 on 10 May 2011. It is the only non-state party to over 50 multilateral conventions, and has participated as a full member in every way except for having a vote in a number of UN conferences.
The sovereignty status of Western Sahara is in dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. Most of the territory is controlled by Morocco, the remainder (the Free Zone) by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front. Western Sahara is listed by the UN as a "non-self-governing territory".
The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are not members of the UN, but are members of specialized agencies of the UN such as WHO and UNESCO, and signatories of international treaties such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and are treated as non-member states.
- Enlargement of the United Nations
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