Clostridium acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Clostridia
Order: Clostridiale
Family: Clostridiaceae
Genus: Clostridium
Species: C. acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum, Chaim Weizmann. A senior lecturer at the University of Manchester, England, he used them in 1916 as a bio-chemical tool to produce at the same time, jointly, acetone, ethanol, and butanol from starch. The method has been described since as the ABE process, (Acetone Butanol Ethanol fermentation process), yielding 3 parts of acetone, 6 of butanol, and 1 of ethanol, reducing the former difficulties to make cordite, an explosive, from acetone and paving the way also, for instance, to obtain vehicle fuels and synthetic rubber.

Unlike yeast, which can digest sugar only into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest whey, sugar, starch, cellulose and perhaps certain types of lignin, yielding butanol, propionic acid, ether, and glycerin.


  • In genetic engineering 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5

In genetic engineering

In 2008, a strain of Escherichia coli was genetically engineered to synthesize butanol; the genes were derived from Clostridium acetobutylicum.[1][2] In 2013, the first microbial production of short-chain alkanes was reported[3] - which is a considerable step toward the production of gasoline. One of the crucial enzymes - a fatty acyl-CoA reductase - came from Clostridium acetobutylicum.

See also


  1. ^ M. Goho, Alexandra (2008-01-16). "Better Bugs for Making Butanol". MIT Technology Review. 
  2. ^ Atsumi, S.; Hanai, T.; Liao, JC. (Jan 2008). "Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels.". Nature 451 (7174): 86–9.  
  3. ^ Choi, YJ.; Lee, SY. (Oct 2013). "Microbial production of short-chain alkanes.". Nature 502 (7472): 571–4.  
  • Jones, DT; Woods, DR (1986). "Acetone-butanol fermentation revisited". Microbiological reviews 50 (4): 484–524.  
  • Bartha, Ronald M. Atlas & Richard (1993). Microbial ecology : fundamentals and applications (3rd ed.). Redwood City, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co. p. 563.  
  • Microbial Processes: Promising Technologies for Developing Countries. Washington: National Academy of Sciences. 1979. Retrieved May 2011. 

Probably, you can see, for immediate results:
27 hits 6 Fuel and Energy 107-123
42 hits 7 Waste Treatment and Utilization 124-141
36 hits 8 Cellulose Conversion 142-157

  • Wong Kromhout, Wileen (2011-03-16). "UCLA researchers engineer E. coli to produce record-setting amounts of alternative fuel". UCLA Newsroom. 

Further reading

  • Nölling J, Breton G, Omelchenko MV, et al. (August 2001). "Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Bacteriol. 183 (16): 4823–38.  
  • Driessen AJ, Ubbink-Kok T, Konings WN (February 1988). "Amino acid transport by membrane vesicles of an obligate anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum". J. Bacteriol. 170 (2): 817–20.  
  • Zappe H, Jones WA, Jones DT, Woods DR (May 1988). "Structure of an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum P262 showing homology with endoglucanase genes from Bacillus spp". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54 (5): 1289–92.  
  • Bowles LK, Ellefson WL (November 1985). "Effects of butanol on Clostridium acetobutylicum". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50 (5): 1165–70.  

External links

  • ATCC reference organism 824 C.Acetobutylicum.
  • Bacteria speeds drug to tumors - use of Clostridium acetobutylicum enzyme to activate cancer drug CB 1954.
  • EPA Clostridium acetobutylicum Final Risk Assessment
  • Carolina Bio Supply Living Culture Order Page
  • Genetic Engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for Enhanced Production of Hydrogen Gas: Penn State University.
  • ResourceClostridiumPathema-
  • US 1875536 
  • US 1315585 
  • Weber, Christian; Farwick, Alexander; Benisch, Feline; Brat, Dawid; Dietz, Heiko; Subtil, Thorsten; Boles, Eckhard (10 June 2010). "Trends and challenges in the microbial production of lignocellulosic bioalcohol fuels". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 87 (4): 1303–1315.