Cell Population Data

Cell Population Data

Leukocytes are one type of Blood cells, the other two being Red blood cells and Platelets. Until now, information given by most Hematology Automated analysers on Leukocytes used for the complete blood count has only been numerical, reporting the total amount of Leukocytes and the percentage and absolute number of the different types thereof: Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils (Diff Data).

@Cell Population Data (CPD) are numerical data developed through VCS technology (Volume, Conductivity, Scatter (Laser Light scattering))[1] 3D cube on DxH800, LH780, LH750, LH500, and Gen*S instruments, that give information about the leukocytes analyzed, reporting their volume, Conductivity and light scatter and are displayed as part of the Diff Data results. These parameters have recently appeared in some hematology textbooks as New White Blood Cell Parameters.[2] Previously, @ CPD received different names by other authors, as Research Population Data, Positional Parameters and Investigation Screen Parameters.

@CPD was originally used for service engineers to verify the optimal setup of White blood cell (WBC) subpopulations in the Hematology instruments. For each of the four main WBC populations: Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes and Eosinophils, there are six values displayed about the Coordinates of these Cells in three-dimensional spaces:

1) Volume Mean and Standard deviation 2) Conductivity Mean and Standard deviation 3) Scatter Mean and Standard deviation. It has been said that when the Leukocytes are normal, these data are normal, but in the event of diseases, the number of Cells increases or decreases and frequently so with different properties, as size, internal Cell content etc. In addition, where Blood cells are not seen under normal circumstances, as myelocytes (Immature Neutrophil), results in these data frequently become abnormal.

When Looking for changes in the value of these data, it is possible to flag (message in the results) the presence of an abnormal proportion of Cells or the presence of different types of Cells, that, after confirmed with FDA/IVD approved methods, may help in the screening/detection of diseases.

Over the past few years, articles related to these new @Cell Population Data have appeared in different journals using the changes to these data for the screening/flagging of major diseases including:

  • Bacterial infections and sepsis
    • Chaves, Fernando; Tierno, Bethany; Xu, Dongsheng (2005). "Quantitative Determination of Neutrophil VCS Parameters by the Coulter Automated Hematology Analyzer: New and Reliable Indicators for Acute Bacterial Infection". American Journal of Clinical Pathology 124 (3): 440–4.  
    • Chaves, Fernando; Tierno, Bethany; Xu, Dongsheng (2006). "Neutrophil volume distribution width: A new automated hematologic parameter for acute infection". Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 130 (3): 378–80.  
    • Raimondi, Francesco; Ferrara, Teresa; Capasso, Letizia; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Romano, Antonia; Grimaldi, Ernesto; Scopacasa, Francesco (2010). "Automated Determination of Neutrophil Volume as Screening Test for Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Infants". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 29 (3): 288.  
    • Mardi, D.; Fwity, B.; Lobmann, R.; Ambrosch, A. (2009). "Mean cell volume of neutrophils and monocytes compared with C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and white blood cell count for prediction of sepsis and nonsystemic bacterial infections". International Journal of Laboratory Hematology.  
    • Park, D.-H.; Park, K.; Park, J.; Park, H.-H.; Chae, H.; Lim, J.; Oh, E.-J.; Kim, Y.; et al. (2011). "Screening of sepsis using leukocyte cell population data from the Coulter automatic blood cell analyzer DxH800". International Journal of Laboratory Hematology 33 (4): 391–9.  
  • malaria
    • Briggs, Carol; Simon-Lopez, Ramon; Costa, Anabela Da; Freeman, Lyn; Aucamp, Ilse; Taylor, Ivonne; Ngubeni, Busisiwe; Machin, Samuel J. (2006). "Development of an Automated Malaria Discriminant Factor Using VCS Technology". American Journal of Clinical Pathology 126 (5): 691–8.  
    • Fourcade, C.; Casbas, M. J. C.; Belaouni, H.; Gonzalez, J. J. D.; Garcia, P. J. J.; Pepio, M. A. E. (2004). "Automated detection of malaria by means of the haematology analyser CoulterR GEN.STM". Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 26 (6): 367–72.  
  • Dengue
    • Simon-Lopez, Ramon; Soto, Rabssary Martinez; Chaves, Fernando (December 6, 2010). Monocyte Anisocytosis: a New Hematological Marker for the Detection of Dengue Fever. 52nd ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition. 
  • Viral diseases
    • Jung, Y-J.; Kim, J-H.; Park, Y-J.; Kahng, J.; Lee, H.; Lee, K-Y.; Kim, M. Y.; Han, K.; Lee, W. (2012). "Evaluation of cell population data on the UniCel DxH 800 Coulter Cellular Analysis system as a screening for viral infection in children". International Journal of Laboratory Hematology 34 (3): 283–9.  
  • Megaloblastic anemia
    • WO patent 2010054180, Simon-Lopez, Ramon & Sukhacheva, Elena, "High Sensitivity Parameters For The Detection Of Vitamin B12 And/Or Folate Deficiencies And Methods Of Use", published May 14, 2010 
    • Risch, C.; Medina, P.; Nydegger, U. E.; Bahador, Z.; Brinkmann, T.; Von Landenberg, P.; Risch, M.; Risch, L. (2012). "The relationship of leukocyte anisocytosis to holotranscobalamin, a marker of cobalamin deficiency". International Journal of Laboratory Hematology 34 (2): 192–200.  
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
    • Miguel, Amparo; Orero, Maite; Simon, Ramon; Collado, Rosa; Perez, Pedro L; Pacios, Alejandro; Iglesias, Rosario; Martinez, Antonio; Carbonell, Felix (2007). "Automated Neutrophil Morphology and Its Utility in the Assessment of Neutrophil Dysplasia". Laboratory Hematology 13 (3): 98–102.  
    • Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Vockenhuber, Michael; Niedetzky, Paul; Totzke, Uwe; Gabriel, Christian (2008). "A new high-throughput screening method for the detection of chronic lymphatic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 46 (1): 85–8.  
  • Lymphoproliferative disorders
    • Silva, M.; Fourcade, C.; Fartoukh, C.; Lenormand, B.; Buchonnet, G.; Callat, M. P.; Leclerc, C.; Basuyau, J. P.; Vasse, M. (2006). "Lymphocyte volume and conductivity indices of the haematology analyser CoulterR GEN.STM in lymphoproliferative disorders and viral diseases". Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 28 (1): 1–8.  
    • Jean, Arnaud; Boutet, Catherine; Lenormand, Bernard; Callat, Marie-Paule; Buchonnet, Gérard; Leclerc, Carole; Vasse, Marc (2011). "Combination of cellular population data and CytoDiff™ analyses for the diagnosis of lymphocytosis". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 49 (11).  
    • Simón, R; Lima, M; Arroyo, JL; Navarro, T; García, MA; Rodriguez, LI; Barberá, A; Feliu, E; Justiça, B (2000). "Utility of the Beckman Coulter GEN*S investigation screen parameters in order to diagnostic the etiology of a lymphocytosis". Blood 96 (11): 3858. 
  • Differential diagnosis of Thrombocytosis
    • Vasse, M; Jean, A; Gromellon, N; Piquenot, J; Basuyau, J; Bastard, C; Lenormand, B (July 9, 2007). Monocyte Parameters To Discriminate Essential From Reactive Thrombocytosis. XXI Congress of the International Sociiety on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. p. 190. 

The possibility of using these new data in the screening of several diseases, used as a suspect flag, opens the door to an easy and inexpensive way for medical check ups for the population at large, because these data come free with the complete blood count provided by Hematology Automated analysers.

@CPD, @Cell Population Data are tests for Research or Laboratory Use Only, and can not be reported to the physicians, only to be used as a suspect message, for the detection / suspect of abnormal cells.

References

  1. ^ VCS patent (WO1988007198) MULTI-PART DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZING APPARATUS UTILIZING LIGHT SCATTER TECHNIQUES (US Patent US5125737) http://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=B67D818877BB07E38094375E8DF95983.wapp1?docId=WO1988007198&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription
  2. ^ New White Cell Parameters. Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, 11th Edition Chapter 3, page 45, 2012. Barbara J. Bain, Imelda Bates, Mike A Laffan, S. Mitchell Lewis. ISBN 9780702034084. http://www.expertconsultbook.com/expertconsult/b/book.do?method=display&decorator=none&type=bookPage&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-7020-3408-4..00003-5--s0375&isbn=978-0-7020-3408-4&hitTerms=%22observation+parameter%22%7C%22white+blood+cell%22%7C%22white+blood+cells%22%7C%22white+cell%22%7CLEUKOCYTES%7Cleucocyte%7Cleukocyte%7Cleukocytes%7Cnew%7Cnewer%7Cnewest%7Cparameter%7Cparameters&hitNum=1