Republic of Turkey
Motto: Egemenlik, kayıtsız şartsız Milletindir
"Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation"
Anthem: İstiklal Marşı
|Ethnic groups (2008)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||President||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan|
|-||Prime Minister||Ahmet Davutoğlu|
|-||Speaker of the Parliament||Cemil Çiçek|
|-||President of the Constitutional Court||Haşim Kılıç|
|Legislature||Grand National Assembly|
|Succession to the Ottoman Empire|
|-||Government of the Grand National Assembly||23 April 1920|
|-||Treaty of Lausanne||24 July 1923|
|-||Declaration of Republic||29 October 1923|
|-||Current constitution||7 November 1982|
783,562 km2 (37th)
302,535 sq mi
|-||2013 census||76,667,864  (18th)|
100 /km2 (108th)
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$1.512 trillion (17th)|
|-||Per capita||$19,556 (61st)|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|-||Total||$813.316 billion (18th)|
|-||Per capita||$10,518 (67th)|
medium · 56th
high · 69th
|Currency||Turkish lira () (TRY)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||TR|
Turkey (; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.
Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age, including various Ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians and Persians. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was Hellenized, which continued with the Roman rule and the transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Turkish beyliks.
Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566). After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–1918) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. Following WWI, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Turkey is a OIC and the G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey's growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power.
- Etymology 1
- Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace 2.1
- Antiquity and Byzantine Period 2.2
- The Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire 2.3
- Republic of Turkey 2.4
- Administrative divisions 3
- Law 4.1
- Foreign relations 4.2
- Military 4.3
- Biodiversity 5.1
- Climate 5.2
- History 6.1
- Tourism 6.2
- Infrastructure 6.3
- Science and technology 6.4
- Religion 7.1
- Education 7.2
- Healthcare 7.3
- Arts 8.1
- Architecture 8.2
- Sports 8.3
- Cuisine 8.4
- Media 8.5
- See also 9
- References 10
- Further reading 11
- External links 12
The name of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye) is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century). The English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia.
The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia (Greek: Τουρκία) was used by the Byzantine emperor and scholar Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his book De Administrando Imperio, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the northern shores of the Black and Caspian seas, was referred to as Tourkia (Land of the Turks) in Byzantine sources. The Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its contemporaries.
Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace
The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various Ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, beginning with the Neolithic period until conquest of Alexander the Great. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since forty thousand years ago, and is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 B.C. with its inhabitants starting the practice of agriculture.
Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and in July 2012 was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age.
The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as ca. 2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians ca. 2000–1700 BC. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC. Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria.
Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. Starting from 714 BC, Urartu shared the same fate and dissolved in 590 BC. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.
Antiquity and Byzantine Period
Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna and Byzantium, the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.
Anatolia was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries BC and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC, which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area. Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms, all of which became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC. The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries AD the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture.
In 324, Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. This, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empire, ruled most of the territory of what is today Turkey until the Late Middle Ages.
The Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire
In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuks began penetrating into the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting Turkification of the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Anatolia and gradually spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.
In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would, over the next 200 years, evolve into the Ottoman Empire, expanding throughout Anatolia, the Balkans, the Levant and North Africa. In 1453, the Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople.
In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the Empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea. Subsequently, a competition started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat for the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trading routes between East Asia and Western Europe (later collectively named the Silk Road). This important monopoly was increasingly compromised following the discovery of a sea route around Africa by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, which had a considerable impact on the Ottoman economy.
The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At sea, the Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy) for control of the Mediterranean Sea. In the east, the Ottomans were occasionally at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries.
From the beginning of the 19th century onwards, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. As it gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth, many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia, along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a rise in nationalist sentiment among the various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians.
The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported from Eastern Anatolia to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. As a result, an estimated 1,500,000 Armenians were killed. The Turkish government denies that there was an Armenian Genocide and claims that Armenians were only relocated from the eastern war zone. Large-scale massacres were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Greeks and Assyrians. Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres.
Republic of Turkey
The occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish National Movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.
By 18 September 1922, the occupying armies were expelled, and the Ankara-based Turkish regime, which declared itself the legitimate government of the country in April 1920, started to formalize the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. On 1 November, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the continuing state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital. The Lausanne treaty stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey.
Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old Ottoman-Turkish state into a new secular republic. With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).
After participating with the United Nations forces in the Makarios and installed the pro-Enosis (union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey, was established.
The single-party period ended in 1945. It was followed by a tumultuous transition to multiparty democracy over the next few decades, which was interrupted by military coups d'état in 1960, 1971, and 1980, as well as a military memorandum in 1997. In 1984, the PKK, a Kurdish separatist group, began an insurgency campaign against the Turkish government, which to date has claimed over 40,000 lives. Peace talks are ongoing. Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. In 2013, widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but growing into general anti-government dissent.
Turkey has a unitary structure in terms of administration and this aspect is one of the most important factors shaping the Turkish public administration. When three powers (executive, legislature and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations do not have almost any power. In other words, there are not units called “states” in Turkey and the provinces and cities come after the central administration. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the governors and city governors. Besides the governors and the city governors, other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government rather than to be appointed by mayors or elected by constituents.
Turkey is also subdivided into 7 regions and 21 subregions for geographic, demographic and economic purposes; this does not refer to an administrative division.
Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial role. The president is elected for a five-year term by direct elections and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is first president elected by direct voting.
Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers which make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.
The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the head of the party having the most seats in parliament. The prime minister is Ahmet Davutoğlu who is also the leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) since 27 August 2014.
Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether. The electoral threshold is 10% of the votes.
Supporters of Atatürk's reforms are called Kemalists, as distinguished from Islamists, representing two extremes on a continuum of beliefs about the proper role of religion in public life. The Kemalist position generally combines a kind of democracy with a laicist constitution and westernised secular lifestyle, while supporting state intervention in the economy, education, and other public services. Since the 1980s, a rise in income inequality and class distinction has given rise to Islamic populism, a movement that in theory supports obligation to authority, communal solidarity and social justice, though what that entails in practice is often contested.
Ergenekon and Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. In 2012, the CPJ identified 76 jailed journalists in Turkey, including 61 directly held for their published work, more than in Iran, Eritrea or China. A former U.S. State Department spokesman, Philip J. Crowley, said that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey."
Turkey has a legal system which has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. For instance, the Turkish Civil Law has been modified by incorporating elements mainly of the Swiss Civil Code, the Code of Obligations and the German Commercial Code. The Administrative Law bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart.
Turkey has adopted the principle of the Turkish Constitution.
According to Article 142 of the Turkish Constitution, the organization, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law. In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts and Military Courts. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system.
Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments (such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command) and agencies, all acting under the command of the Prime Minister of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs. According to figures released by the Justice Ministry, there are 100,000 people in Turkish prisons as of November 2008, a doubling since 2000.
Turkey is a founding member of the BSEC (1992), the D-8 (1997) and the G-20 major economies (1999). Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009-2010. In September 2013, Turkey became a member of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD).
In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey became one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European Union) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. Today, EU membership is considered as a state policy and a strategic target by Turkey. Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid.
The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy is the country's strategic alliance with the United States. The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with Washington. Subsequently Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union. In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans.
The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia, thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit to the West. However Turkey's border with Armenia, a state in the Caucasus, was closed by Turkey in support of Azerbaijan during the Nagorno-Karabakh War and remains closed.
Under the AK Party government, Turkey's influence has grown in the formerly Ottoman territories of the Middle East and the Balkans, based on the "strategic depth" doctrine (a terminology that was coined by Ahmet Davutoğlu for defining Turkey's increased engagement in regional foreign policy issues), also called Neo-Ottomanism. Following the Arab Spring in December 2010 and the choices made by the AK Party for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries, this policy has led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbour Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and with Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi. As of 2014, Turkey doesn't have an ambassador in Syria, Egypt and Israel (diplomatic relations with the latter country were severed after its bombing raids on the Gaza Strip.) This has left Turkey with few allies in the East Mediterranean (where rich natural gas fields have recently been discovered), and is in sharp contrast with the original goals that were set by the Foreign Minister (currently Prime Minister) Ahmet Davutoğlu in his "zero problems with neighbours" foreign policy doctrine. Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia and former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus, though their presence is controversial, and assists Iraqi Kurdistan with security. Turkey has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the United States stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001. Since 2003, Turkey contributes military personnel to Eurocorps and takes part in the EU Battlegroups.
Turkey has the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces, with an estimated strength of 495,000 deployable forces, according to a 2011 NATO estimate. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.
Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location. Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.
Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97% of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3% of the country.
The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. It lies between latitudes 35° and 43° N, and longitudes 25° and 45° E. Turkey's area, including lakes, occupies 783,562 square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe. Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.
The European section of Turkey, East Thrace, forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country, Anatolia, consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,137 metres (16,854 ft), and Lake Van, the largest lake in the country.
Turkey is divided into seven census regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.
Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, along which a major earthquake occurred in 1999.
Turkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for mankind still grow in Turkey. The diversity of Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of its flora. The number of animal species throughout Europe as a whole is about 60,000; in Turkey there are over 80,000 (over 100,000 counting subspecies).
The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range. The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle, lesser spotted eagle, Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper. The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests.
There are 40 national parks, 189 nature parks, 31 nature preserve areas, 80 wildlife protection areas and 109 nature monuments in Turkey such as Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, Mount Nemrut National Park, Ancient Troya National Park, Ölüdeniz Nature Park and Polonezköy Nature Park
Ankara, the capital of Turkey, is renowned for the Angora cat, Angora rabbit and Angora goat. Another national cat breed of Turkey is the Van cat. The national dog breeds are the Anatolian Shepherd, Kangal, Malaklı and Akbaş.
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.
The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days. However snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.
Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.
Winters on the eastern part of the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia. Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall is often less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.
Turkey has the world's 17th largest GDP by PPP and 17th largest nominal GDP. The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G-20 major economies. The EU – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalization of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. Turkey's exports were $143.5 billion in 2011 and they reached $163 billion in 2012 (main export partners in 2012: Germany 8.6%, Iraq 7.1%, Iran 6.5%, UK 5.7%, UAE 5.4%). However, larger imports which amounted to $229 billion in 2012 threatened the balance of trade (main import partners in 2012: Russia 11.3%, Germany 9%, China 9%, USA 6%, Italy 5.6%). Turkey has a large automotive industry, which produced over a million motor vehicles in 2012, ranking as the 16th largest producer in the world. Turkish shipbuilding exports were worth US$1.2 billion in 2011. The major export markets are Malta, Marshall Islands, Panama and the United Kingdom. Turkish shipyards have 15 floating docks of different sizes and one dry dock. Tuzla, Yalova, and İzmit have developed into dynamic shipbuilding centres. In 2011, there were 70 active shipyards in Turkey, with another 56 being built. Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 dwt and also for their mega yachts.
Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields. Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. In 2010, the agricultural sector accounted for 9% of GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for 26% and the services sector for 65%. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. In 2004, it was estimated that 46% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% of income earners, while the lowest 20% received only 6%. The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30% in 2012, the lowest among all OECD countries. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was $8.3 billion in 2012, a figure expected to rise to $15 billion in 2013. In 2012, Fitch Group upgraded Turkey's credit rating to investment grade after an 18-year gap; this was followed by a ratings upgrade by Moody's in May 2013, as the service lifted Turkey's government bond ratings to the lowest investment grade Baa3. In the early years of the 21st century, the chronically high inflation was brought under control; this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira in 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. In 2009, the new Turkish lira was renamed back to the Turkish lira, with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. As a result of continuing economic reforms, inflation dropped to 8% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10%.
During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over private sector participation, foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, and foreign direct investment. However in 1983 Prime Minister Turgut Özal initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.
The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year), and 2001; resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003. Lack of additional fiscal reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility. Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen.
Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatization of publicly owned industries, and the liberalization of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate. The public debt to GDP ratio peaked at 75.9% during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9% by 2013.
The real GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 6.8% annually, which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. However, growth slowed to 1% in 2008, and in 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with a recession of 5%. The economy was estimated to have returned to 8% growth in 2010. According to Eurostat data, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing power standard stood at 52% of the EU average in 2011.
In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey, including 22 international airports. As of 2014, Istanbul Atatürk Airport is the 13th busiest airport in the world, serving 31,833,324 passengers between January and July 2014, according to Airports Council International. The new (third) international airport of Istanbul is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers per annum. Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, was selected by Skytrax as Europe's best airline for four consecutive years in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. With 254 destinations worldwide, Turkish Airlines is the fourth largest carrier in the world by number of destinations as of 2014.
As of 2014, the country has a roadway network of 65,623 kilometres (40,776 mi). The total length of the rail network was 10,991 km in 2008, including 2,133 km of electrified and 457 km of high-speed track. The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011 while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014.
In 2008, 7,555 kilometres (4,694 mi) of natural gas pipelines and 3,636 kilometres (2,259 mi) of petroleum pipelines spanned the country's territory. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated on May 10, 2005.
In 2013, the energy consumption was 240 billion kilowatt hours. As Turkey imported 72% of its energy in 2013, the government decided to invest in nuclear power to reduce imports. Three nuclear power stations are to be built by 2023. Turkey has the fifth highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal power in the world. Turkey is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme.
Turkey's first nuclear power plants are expected to be built in Mersin's Akkuyu district on the Mediterranean coast; in Sinop's İnceburun district on the Black Sea coast; and in Kırklareli's İğneada district on the Black Sea coast. Turkey has the fifth highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal power in the world. Turkey is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.
Science and technology
TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.
Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, Aselsan, Havelsan, Roketsan, MKE, among others. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). The Turkish Space Launch System (UFS) is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations.
According to the Address-Based Population Recording System of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in 2011, nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.35% each year. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². People within the 15–64 age group constitute 67.4% of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 25.3%; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7.3%. In 1927, when the first official census was recorded in the Republic of Turkey, the population was 13.6 million. The largest city in Turkey, Istanbul, is also the largest city in Europe in population, and the third-largest city in Europe in terms of size.
Article 66 of the Hamshenis, Laz, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Pomaks, and Roma. The Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the southeastern provinces of the country, are the largest non-Turkic ethnicity, variously estimated around 18%. Minorities besides the Kurds are thought to make up an estimated 7–12% of the population. Minorities other than the three officially recognized ones do not have specific minority rights. The term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, while the Turkish government is frequently criticized for its treatment of minorities. Minorities of European origin include the Levantines, who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul and Izmir) since the medieval period.
2.5% of the population are international migrants and Turkey has accepted over a million Syrian refugees since the beginning of the Syrian Civil War. Turkey has accommodated most of its Syrian refugees in tent cities administered by the country's emergency management agency.
The country's official language is 
Largest cities or towns of Turkey
TÜİK's address-based calculation from December, 2013.
Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. The role of religion has been a controversial debate over the years since the formation of Islamist parties. For many decades, the wearing of the hijab was banned in schools and government buildings because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam. However, the ban was lifted from universities in 2011, from government buildings in 2013, and from schools in 2014.
The percentage of non-Muslims in Turkey fell from 19% in 1914 to 2.5% in 1927, due to events which had a significant impact on the country's demographical structure, such as the  Currently there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey. The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century.
There are about 26,000 people who are Jewish, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi. There have been Jewish communities in Asia Minor since at least the 5th century BCE and many Spanish and Portuguese Jews expelled from Spain were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire in the late 15th century, twenty centuries later. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population.
The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school. Less than half of 25-34 year old Turks have completed at least upper secondary education, compared with an OECD average of over 80%. Basic education in Turkey is considered to lag behind other OECD countries, with significant differences between high and low performers. Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study. Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are 10 years old. The overall adult literacy rate in 2011 was 94.1%, 97.9% for males and 90.3% for females.
By 2011, there were 166 universities in Turkey. Entry to higher education depends on the Student Selection Examination (ÖSS). In 2008, the quota of admitted students was 600,000, compared to 1,700,000 who took the ÖSS exam in 2007. Except for the Open Education Faculty (Turkish: Açıköğretim Fakültesi) at Anadolu University, entrance is regulated by the national ÖSS examination, after which high school graduates are assigned to universities according to their performance. According to the 2012–2013 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the top university in Turkey is Middle East Technical University (in the 201–225 rank range), followed by Bilkent University and Koç University (both in the 226–250 range), Istanbul Technical University and Boğaziçi University (in the 276-300 bracket).
Health care in Turkey used to be dominated by a centralized state system run by the Ministry of Health. In 2003, the government introduced a sweeping health reform programme aimed at increasing the ratio of private to state health provision and making healthcare available to a larger share of the population. Turkish Statistical Institute announced that 76.3 billion TL was spent for healthcare in 2012; 79.6% of which was covered by the Social Security Institution and 15.4% of which was paid directly by the patients. In 2012, there were 29,960 medical institutions in Turkey, and on average one doctor per 583 people and 2.65 beds per 1000 people.
Life expectancy stands at 71.1 years for men and 75.3 years for women, with an overall average of 73.2 years for the populace as a whole.
The first three groups of diseases that cause death, respectively; Diseases of the circulatory system (39.8%), cancer (21.3%), respiratory diseases (9.8%)
Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.
Turkish painting, in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. The very first painting lessons were scheduled at what is now the Istanbul Technical University (then the Imperial Military Engineering School) in 1793, mostly for technical purposes. In the late 19th century, human figure in the western sense was being established in Turkish painting, especially with Osman Hamdi Bey. Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Paşa. The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in 1926 came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe. The later "Group D" of artists introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for thirty, forty years. Other important movements in Turkish painting were the "Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) of the late 1930s; the "On'lar Grubu" (Group of Ten) of the 1940s; the "Yeni Dal Grubu" (New Branch Group) of the 1950s; and the "Siyah Kalem Grubu" (Black Pen Group) of the 1960s.
Turkish music and literature are examples of a mix of cultural influences. Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts. Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (Awakening), while the journalist Şinasi is noted for writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde (New Literature) movement; the Fecr-i Âtî (Dawn of the Future) movement; and the Millî Edebiyyât (National Literature) movement. The first radical step of innovation in 20th century Turkish poetry was taken by Nâzım Hikmet, who introduced the free verse style. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip Movement. The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Turkey has a diverse folkloric dance culture. Hora is performed in East Thrace; Zeybek in the Aegean Region, Southern Marmara and East-Central Anatolia Region; Teke in the Western Mediterranean Region; Kaşık Oyunları and Karşılama in West-Central Anatolia, Western Black Sea Region, Southern Marmara Region and Eastern Mediterranean Region; Horon in the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region; Halay in Eastern Anatolia and the Central Anatolia Region; and Bar and Lezginka in the Northeastern Anatolia Region.
The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architectue of Central Asia with those of Persian, Arab, Armenian and Byzantine architecture. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413. Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture. Topkapı Palace in Istanbul is one of the most famous examples of classical Ottoman architecture and was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years. Mimar Sinan (c.1489–1588) was the most important architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. He was the chief architect of at least 374 buildings which were constructed in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.
Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by European styles, and this can be particularly seen in the Tanzimat era buildings of Istanbul like the Dolmabahçe, Çırağan, Feriye, Beylerbeyi, Küçüksu, Ihlamur and Yıldız palaces. The Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus also reflect the fusion between classical Ottoman and European architectural styles during the aforementioned period. The First National Architectural Movement (Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı) in the early 20th century sought to create a new architecture, which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. The movement was also labelled Turkish Neoclassical or the National Architectural Renaissance. The leading architects of this movement were Vedat Tek (1873–1942), Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927), Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953). Notable buildings from this era are the Grand Post Office in Istanbul (1905–1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919–1922), Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911–1926), State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930), Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928), the first Ziraat Bank headquarters in Ankara (1925–1929), the first Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters in Ankara (1926–1929), Bebek Mosque, and Kamer Hatun Mosque.
The most popular 
Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. The Turkish men's national basketball team won the silver medal in the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship and EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey. They also won two gold medals (1987 and 2013), one silver medal (1971) and three bronze medals (1967, 1983 and 2009) in the Mediterranean Games. Turkish basketball club Anadolu Efes S.K. won the FIBA Korać Cup in 1996, finished 2nd in the FIBA Saporta Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001, finishing 3rd in both occasions. Another Turkish basketball club, Beşiktaş, won the FIBA EuroChallenge in 2012. The Final of the 2013–14 EuroLeague Women basketball championship was played between two Turkish teams, Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe, and won by Galatasaray.
The traditional Turkish national sport has been yağlı güreş (oiled wrestling) since Ottoman times. Edirne has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oiled wrestling tournament since 1361. International wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team.
The country's position between the East and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks gain complete control of major trade routes, and an ideal environment allowed plants and animals to flourish. Turkish cuisine was well established by the mid-1400s, the beginning of the Ottoman Empire's six hundred-year reign. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil, and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples. The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa, used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world. By the end of the 1500s, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.
Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband internet use all make up a very vibrant media industry in Turkey. In 2003 a total of 257 television stations and 1,100 radio stations were licensed to operate, and others operated without licenses. Of those licensed, 16 television and 36 radio stations reached national audiences. The majority of the audiences are shared among public broadcaster TRT and the network-style channels such as Kanal D, Show TV, ATV and Star TV. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available. The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media. By circulation, the most popular daily newspapers are Zaman, Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. Turkish television dramas are increasingly becoming popular beyond Turkey's borders and are among the country's most vital exports, both in terms of profit and public relations.
- "Motto". Gov.tr. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Turkey". The World Factbook. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2013".
- "Turkey". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Gini Index". CIA. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "2014 Human Development Report". 14 March 2013. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: "Europe" (pp. 68–69); "Asia" (pp. 90–91): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
- """The Economist: "Turkey in the Balkans: The good old days?. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Stiner, Mary C.; Kuhn, Steven L.; Güleç, Erksin. "Early Upper Paleolithic shell beads at Üçağızlı Cave I (Turkey): Technology and the socioeconomic context of ornament life-histories". Journal of Human Evolution 64 (5): 380–398.
- Douglas Arthur Howard. The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xiv–xx.
- Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). Oxford University Press. pp. 3–11, 37.
- Casson, Lionel (1977). "The Thracians". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 35 (1): 2–6.
- David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid Biles Beck (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 61.
- "Turkey: Turkish Origins". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Mehmet Fuat Köprülü&Gary Leiser. The origins of the Ottoman Empire. p. 33.
- Yalçın, Özgür. "Reformation_of_Ottoman_Bureaucracy_A_Failed_Attempt". http://www.academia.edu/. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of Genocide Research 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820
- Roderic H. Davison; Review "From Paris to Sèvres: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire at the Peace Conference of 1919–1920" by Paul C. Helmreich in Slavic Review, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Mar. 1975), pp. 186–187
- "Turkey, Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- "Multiculturalism and Turkey". http://europa.eu. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Türkiye'nin yüzde 85'i 'anadilim Türkçe' diyor". Milliyet.com.tr. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "Turkey Overview". http://www.minorityrights.org. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "Chronology of Turkey-EU relations". Turkish Secretariat of European Union Affairs. Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
- "International Organisations". http://www.mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Turkey and Russia on the Rise". Stratfor. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Can Turkey Be a Source of Stability in the Middle East?". heptagonpost.com. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Turkey: A Welcome Return To The Balkans?". eurasiareview.com. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Scharlipp, Wolfgang (2000). An Introduction to the Old Turkish Runic Inscriptions. Verlag auf dem Ruffel., Engelschoff. ISBN 3-933847-00-1, 9783933847003.
- Harper, Douglas (2001). "Turkey". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- Jenkins, Romilly James Heald (1967). De Administrando Imperio by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinae (New, revised ed.). Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. p. 65. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing in his De Administrando Imperio (ca. 950 AD) "Patzinakia, the Pecheneg realm, stretches west as far as the Siret River (or even the Eastern Carpathian Mountains), and is four days distant from Tourkia (i.e. Hungary)."
- Günter Prinzing; Maciej Salamon (1999). Byzanz und Ostmitteleuropa 950-1453: Beiträge zu einer table-ronde des XIX. International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Copenhagen 1996. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 46.
- Henry Hoyle Howorth (2008). History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: The So-called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. Cosimo, Inc. p. 3.
- Imber, Colin. "The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650, The Structure of Power". http://www.fatih.edu.tr. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Hattusha: the Hittite Capital". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "The Position of Anatolian" (PDF). Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- Balter, Michael (27 February 2004). "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family?".
- "The World's First Temple". Archaeology magazine. Nov–Dec 2008. p. 23.
- "Çatalhöyük added to UNESCO World Heritage List". Global Heritage Fund. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Troy". http://www.ancient.eu. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Ziyaret Tepe – Turkey Archaeological Dig Site". uakron.edu. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "'"Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times And Today (PDF). Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Zimansky, Paul. Urartian Material Culture As State Assemblage: An Anomaly in the Archaeology of Empire. p. 103.
- Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. p. 314.
- "About Turkey - Etymology And Climate". http://www.ktu.edu.tr. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- D. M. Lewis; John Boardman (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p. 444.
- Hooker, Richard (6 June 1999). "Ancient Greece: The Persian Wars". Washington State University, Washington, United States. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
- Theo van den Hout (27 October 2011). The Elements of Hittite. Cambridge University Press. p. 1.
- Daniel C. Waugh (2004). "Constantinople/Istanbul". University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Retrieved 26 December 2006.
- "Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti". turktarihim.com. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th–11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 21.
- "THE SELJUK TURKS". http://peter.mackenzie.org. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Rafis Abazov (2009). Culture and Customs of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1071.
- Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. pp. 28–30.
- Simons, Marlise (1993-08-22). "Center of Ottoman Power". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- "Dolmabahce Palace". dolmabahcepalace.com. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "TheOttomans.org - Discover The Ottomans". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Stanford J. Shaw (29 October 1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 213.
- Kirk, George E. (2008). A Short History of the Middle East. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 58.
- Todorova, Maria (18 March 2009). Imagining the Balkans. Oxford University Press. p. 175.
- Mann, Michael (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. p. 118.
- "Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1918-1920". http://www.nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Death toll of the Armenian Massacres". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Fact Sheet: Armenian Genocide".
- Freedman, Jeri (2009). The Armenian genocide (1st ed. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
- Totten, Samuel, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (eds.) Dictionary of Genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, p. 19. ISBN 0-313-34642-9.
- Patrick J. Roelle, Sr. (27 September 2010). Islam's Mandate- a Tribute to Jihad: The Mosque at Ground Zero. AuthorHouse. p. 33.
- Donald Bloxham (2005). The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, And the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford University Press. p. 150.
- Levene, Mark (Winter 1998). "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923". Holocaust and Genocide Studies 12 (3): 393–433.
- Ferguson, Niall (2007). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. Penguin Group (USA) Incorporated. p. 180.
- Atay, Mehmet. "19 Mayıs-Türk Ulusal Kurtuluş Hareketinin Başlangıcı" (in Turkish). T.C. MİLLÎ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Mango, Andrew (2000). Atatürk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook. p. lxxviii.
- Axiarlis, Evangelia (2014). Political Islam and the Secular State in Turkey: Democracy, Reform and the Justice and Development Party. I.B. Tauris. p. 11.
- Clogg, Richard (20 June 2002). A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. p. 101.
- Gerhard Bowering; Patricia Crone; Wadad Kadi; Devin J. Stewart, Muhammad Qasim Zaman, Mahan Mirza (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 49.
- "Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005)". United Nations. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
- Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945–1953. Susquehanna University Press. p. 134.
- "Members and partners". OECD. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Uslu, Nasuh (2003). The Cyprus question as an issue of Turkish foreign policy and Turkish-American relations, 1959–2003. Nova Publishers. p. 119.
- "Timeline: Cyprus". BBC. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2006.
- Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge, UK. pp. 161, 215, 246.
- Arsu, Sebsem (April 12, 2012). "Turkish Military Leaders Held for Role in ’97 Coup".
- "Turkey's PKK peace plan delayed". BBC. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- Sebnem Arsu (25 April 2013). "Kurdish Rebel Group to Withdraw From Turkey". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- "Murat Karayilan announces PKK withdrawal from Turkey". BBC. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. p. 12.
- Mullen, Jethro; Cullinane, Susannah (4 June 2013). "What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey?". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "General Structure of Turkish Public Administration". http://www.justice.gov.tr/. Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Turkey Districts". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Yiğit, Ali. "Geçmişten Günümüze Türkiye'yi Bölgelere Ayıran Çalışmalar ve Yapılması Gerekenler". http://www.justice.gov.tr/. Ankara Üniversitesi Türkiye Coğrafyası Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Çarkoğlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge, UK.
- Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (17 October 2001). "Turkish Constitution". Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2006.
- "Euro court backs Turkey Islamist ban". BBC. 31 July 2001. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "Turkey's Kurd party ban criticised". BBC. 14 March 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (24 August 2004). "Political Structure of Turkey". Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- Kate Fleet; Suraiya Faroqhi; Reşat Kasaba (17 April 2008). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. pp. 357–358.
- "Human rights in Turkey: still a long way to go to meet accession criteria". European Parliament Human Rights committee. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Turkey's Press Freedom Crisis. "Turkey's Press Freedom Crisis". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Seven jounalists arrested in Turkey". The Guardian. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Turkish Legal System". http://www.mymerhaba.com/. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF TURKEY". http://www.uhdigm.adalet.gov.tr/. Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Turkish prisons house more than 100,000".
- "The United Nations Organization and Turkey". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Turkey's Relations with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "The Republic of Turkey and The Organization of The Islamic Conference". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Turkey's relations with the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSEC)". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "D8". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "G-20". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Türkiye'nin üyeliği kabul edildi". Hürriyet Daily News. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Erdoğan: AB'ye tam üyelik, Türkiye'nin stratejik hedefidir (Turkish)/Erdogan:EU membership, Turkey's strategic target".
- Ziya Öniş, ŞuhnazYılmaz. "Turkey-EU-US Triangle in Perspective: Transformation or Continuity?". http://istanbul2004.ku.edu.tr/. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Mitrovic, Marija. "Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Balkans". edoc.hu-berlin.de. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- İdris Bal (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy in Post Cold War Era. Universal-Publishers. p. 269.
- Elanchenny, Susae (2010). Breaking the Ice The Role of Civil Society and Media in Turkey-Armenia Relations An Evaluation of the 'Dialogue-Building between Turkey and Armenia' Project. Istanbul: Istanbul Kültür University. p. 9.
- Taşpınar, Ömer (September 2008). "Turkey's Middle East Policies: Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Murinson, Alexander (December 2009). Turkey's Entente with Israel and Azerbaijan: State Identity and Security in the Middle East and Caucasus (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics).
- "Syria ratchets up tension with Turkey – warning it of dangers of rebel support". Euronews. 4 October 2013.
- "Turkey, Egypt recall envoys in wake of violence". Bloomberg. 16 August 2013.
- Amanda Paul (2014-10-04). "Turkey-Egypt Relations: at Rock-Bottom". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- Yaşar Yakış (2014-09-29). "On Relations between Turkey and Egypt". Turkish Weekly. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- "Greece, Egypt, Cyprus urge Turkey to quit gas search off island".
- "Egypt, Greece, Cyprus pledge to boost energy cooperation".
- "Cairo Declaration signed between Cyprus, Greece and Egypt".
- "Policy of Zero Problems with our Neighbors". Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- Piotr Zalewsky (2013-08-22). "How Turkey Went From 'Zero Problems' to Zero Friends". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
- Mark Lowen (2014-11-20). "Erdogan's 'New Turkey' drifts towards isolation".
- Richmond, Oliver P. (1998). Mediating in Cyprus: The Cypriot Communities and the United Nations. Psychology Press. p. 260.
- "Turkey vows to provide all kinds of support for KRG’s security". Today's Zaman. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Contribution of Turkish Armed Forces to Peace Support Operations". http://www.tsk.tr. Turkish Armed Forces. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Enter the EU Battle Groups". Chaillot Paper no.97. European Union Institute for Security Studies. February 2007. p. 88.
- "Turkey's Relations with NATO". mfa.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence". NATO. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- (10 April 2009)"Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany"Der Spiegel: . Der Spiegel. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Hans M. Kristensen. "NRDC: U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe" (PDF). Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "EBCO: European Bureau for Conscientious Objection". Ebco-beoc.eu. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Immerfall, Stefan (1 August 2009). Handbook of European Societies: Social Transformations in the 21st Century. Springer. p. 417.
- "Turkey". Turkish Odyssey. 2 February 2000. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "UN Demographic Yearbook" (PDF). Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Geography of Turkey". Turkish Ministry of Tourism. 2005. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
- "Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı), Turkey". NASA: Earth Observatory. 2001. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- "Biodiversity in Turkey". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Turkey's flora and fauna". allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Couzens, Dominic (2008). Top 100 Birding Sites of the World.
- "Pontic Mountains and highlands". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Statistics". milliparklar.gov.tr. Ministry of Forest and Water - General Directorare of Nature Conservation and National Parks. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Specific Animals of Turkey". gateofturkey.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Climate of Turkey". General Directorate of Meteorology. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Istanbul remains motoring power of Turkey's economy". hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- (Last revised on 22 September 2014.)"Gross Domestic Product 2013, PPP." (PDF). The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
- (Last revised on 22 September 2014.)"Gross Domestic Product 2013, Nominal." (PDF). The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
- Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (1 May 2006). "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets" (PDF). World Bank. p. 3. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- "2012 Production Statistics". Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Shipbuilding Industry in Turkey". Ministry of Economy. 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013.
- "The Shipbuilding Industry in Turkey". OECD. September 2011.
- "About Best-Selling Home Appliance Brand Beko UK". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Beko Avrupa'da üçüncülüğe oynuyor". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "The Unknown TV Giant - Businessweek". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Turkey: Agriculture and Enlargement" (PDF). Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- "No woman, no growth". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Religious Women in Turkey Have Been Left Out of Emancipation Movement". The New York Times. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "M&A Encumbered Risks Damping Hot Money Bond Party: Turkey Credit". Bloomberg L.P. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "UPDATE 4-Turkey regains investment grade rating after long wait". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Daren Butler (17 May 2013). "UPDATE 1-Turkey hails new investment grading but worries about money flows". Reuters. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Ye Xie; Selcuk Gokoluk (17 May 2013). "Turkey Raised to Investment Grade by Moody's on Debt Cuts". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Turkey knocks six zeros off lira". BBC. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "Data and Statistics for Turkey". World Bank. 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- "Turkish quake hits shaky economy". BBC. 17 August 1999. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
- Worst over' for Turkey"'". BBC. 4 February 2002. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
- "Turkey Labor Market Study" (PDF). World Bank. 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- OECD (14 November 2002). Turkey 2002: Crucial Support for Economic Recovery. OECD Publishing. p. 23.
- Madslien, Jorn (2 November 2006). "Robust economy raises Turkey's hopes". BBC. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
- "General government net debt". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2013. IMF.
- "Growth and economic crises in Turkey: leaving behind a turbulent past?". Economic Papers 386. Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs of the European Commission. October 2009. p. 10.
- "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2014 Edition".
- "Tourism Statistics 2012". http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/. TurkStat. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Turkey - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "UNESCO official page". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD". historyworld.net. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Turkish Airlines is named the Best Airline in Europe at the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Air Show".
- "Turkish Airlines again expands its network" (Press release). Turkish Airlines. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". Retrieved 2014-11-17.
- "Study in Turkey: International Airports in Turkey". Retrieved 2014-11-17.
- "Year to date Passenger Traffic". ACI. 2014-09-25. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
- "It will be the biggest airport of the world". 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Newsweek: "Istanbul's New Erdoğan-Backed Airport to Be Named After... Erdoğan"
- International Business Times: "Erdogan Airport: Istanbul's Super Hub 'to be Named After Turkey's President-Elect'"
- "Yol Ağı Bilgileri". Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- "DÜNYADA VE TÜRKİYEDE HIZLI TREN". hizlitren.tcdd.gov.tr. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "BAKÜ-T İ FL İ S-CEYHAN BORUHATTI’NDA SON DURUM". http://www.emreozgur.com. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Turkey invests big in nuclear power". Deutsche Welle. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Lund, J. W.; Freeston, D. H.; Boyd, T. L. (2005). "Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review". Geothermics 34 (6): 691–727.
- "INOGATE website". Inogate.org. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- "Turkey moves one step closer to nuclear plant". Today's Zaman. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "Company Profile". https://www.tai.com.tr/. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Who We Are? The Scientific And Technological Research Council Of Turkey". Tubitak.gov. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi". Tuba.gov. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Turkish Atomic Energy Authority - Mission of TAEK".
- "Space Launch System Project". Undersecretariat for Defence Industries. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
- Bekdil, Burak Ege (2013-07-28). "Turkey's Sat-Launcher Plans Raise Concerns".
- Bekdil, Burak Ege (2013-12-12). "Turkey Spends Big on Innovation".
- "Mid-year population estimations, 1927–1985; Mid-year population estimations and projections, 1986–2011". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2011". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Turkey". Library of Congress Country Studies. 31 December 1994. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Bator, Robert. Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Istanbul. p. 51.
- Rashed, Tarek; Jürgens, Carsten. Remote Sensing of Urban and Suburban Areas. p. 295.
- Albayrak, Özlem. "Herkes Türk müdür, Türk mü olmalıdır? - Is everyone Turk or should be Turk?". yenisafak.com. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters.
- Nurcan Kaya and Clive Baldwin. "Submission to the European Union and the Government of Turkey". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved July 2004.
- "Giovanni Scognamillo ile sinema üzerine". NTV-MSNBC. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Onlar İzmirli Hristiyan Türkler". Sabah. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision". http://esa.un.org. United Nations. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Syria Regional Refugee Response: Turkey". UNHCR. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "Escape to Uncertainty". National Geographic. 7 June 2013.
- "Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- http://www.citypopulation.de/Turkey-RBC20.html December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de
- "Blue Mosque". bluemosque.co. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Axel Tschentscher. "International Constitutional Law: Turkey Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Turkey: Islam and Laicism Between the Interests of State, Politics, and Society" (PDF).
- Steunebrink, Gerrit; van der Zweerde, Evert (2004). Civil Society, Religion, and the Nation: Modernization in Intercultural Context : Russia, Japan, Turkey. Rodopi. pp. 175–184.
- "Turkey Lifts Longtime Ban on Head Scarves in State Offices". NY Times. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Turkey-lifts-ban-on-headscarves-at-high-schools". http://www.news24.com/. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "TURKEY" (PDF). Library of Congress: Federal Research Division. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Country - Turkey". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Bureau of Democracy, Human rights and Labor: International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Turkey". State.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Turkey: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". State.gov. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Turkey's Alevi strive for recognition". Asia Times Online. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Caferi İmamlar" (in Turkish). Aksiyon.com.tr. 11 October 2004. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "Sufism". All about Turkey. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Pew Forum on Religious & Public life". http://www.pewforum.org/. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Içduygu, Ahmet; Toktas, Şule; Ali Soner, B. (1 February 2008). "The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey". Ethnic and Racial Studies 31 (2): 358–389.
- "Chapter The refugees question in Greece (1821-1930) in "Θέματα Νεοελληνικής Ιστορίας", ΟΕΔΒ ("Topics from Modern Greek History"). 8th edition" (PDF). Nikolaos Andriotis. 2008.
- Editors' Introduction: Why a Special Issue?: Disappearing Christians of the Middle East"'" (PDF). Editors' Introduction. 2001. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Religions". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Roman Catholics by country". Fact-Archive.com. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte" (PDF). 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom". http://www.christiancentury.org. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Life, Culture, Religion". Official Tourism Portal of Turkey. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- William G. Rusch (2013). The Witness of Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 31.
- Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2001). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 40.
- "An Overview of the History of the Jews in Turkey" (PDF). American Sephardi Federation. 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Turkish Jews - Brief History". http://www.science.co.il. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "History". istanbul.edu.tr. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Education in Turkey". World Education Services. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Turkey's Education Reform Bill Is About Playing Politics With Pedagogy". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012". OECD. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Improving The Quality And Equity of Basic Education in Turkey Challenges And Options". World Bank. 30 June 2011. p. viii. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15-24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- University numbers on the rise in Turkey (Hürriyet Daily News, 4 September 2011)
- "Admission requirements". Karadeniz Technical University. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Oxford Business Group (2009). The Report: Turkey 2009. Oxford Business Group. p. 203.
- "Guide for Foreign Students planning Education in Turkey". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "World University Rankings 2012–2013". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- """Hürriyet: "Sağlığa 76,3 milyar lira harcandı. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Turkish Statistical Institute: Number of medical institutions in Turkey". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Turkish Statistical Institute: Number of citizens per healthcare personnel in Turkey". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Population and Development Indicators – Population and Demography". Turkish Statistical Institute. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Cause of Death Statistics". http://www.tuik.gov.tr. TÜİK. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists". unesco.org. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Ibrahim Kaya (2004). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. pp. 57–58.
- Antoinette Harri; Allison Ohta (1999). 10th International Congress of Turkish Art. Fondation Max Van Berchem.
- ""10’LAR’ GRUBU", "YENİ DAL GRUBU", "SİYAH KALEM GRUBU"". http://www.turkresmi.com. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize". BBC. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
- "TURKISH FOLK DANCES". ncturkishfestival. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Simons, Marlise (1993-08-22). "Center of Ottoman Power". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- "A list of the buildings designed by Mimar Sinan". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson.
- "The Search for Identity: 1st National Architecture Movement". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Architecture of the '30s in Turkey". Doğan Hasol, Arhitext Magazine, June 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Tayyare Apartment Building". AtelyeMim.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "XIX. Yüzyış ve XX. Yüzyıl Başı Eminönü’nde Osmanlı Büro Hanları" (in Turkish). Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi-Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Ankara - State Museum of Painting and Sculpture". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Ankara: Ethnographical Museum". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Ankara – T.C. Ziraat Bankası Müzesi
- "The first Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters in Ankara". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "Bebek Mosque". ArchNet.org. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Kemer Hatun Mosque, Beyoglu, Istanbul" (in Turkish). MimarlikMuzesi.org. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization". 14th International Planning History Conference submission by Nilüfer Baturayoğlu Yöney and Yıldız Salman, Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Architecture, Turkey. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Burak Sansal (2006). "Sports in Turkey". allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
- "Galatasaray AŞ". http://www.uefa.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Historical Achievements.". http://www.tff.org. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Historic achievements of the Efes Pilsen Basketball Team". Anadolu Efes Spor Kulübü. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Anadolu Efes S.K.: Our successes". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- "2012 Year In Review: EuroChallenge". http://www.fibaeurope.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Galatasaray Lift EuroLeague Women Title". http://www.fibaeurope.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "National Team's Activities". http://www.tvf.org.tr. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Our International Achievements". http://www.fenerbahce.org.tr. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Women's Volleyball". http://www.eczacibasisporkulubu.org.tr. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Turkish volleyball teams' succeses in Europe". http://www.hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Burak Sansal (2006). "Oiled Wrestling". allaboutturkey.com. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
- "Kırkpınar Oiled Wrestling Tournament: History". Kirkpinar.com. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- Gegner, Christiane. "FILA Wrestling Database". Iat.uni-leipzig.de. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Turkish coffee culture and tradition".
- Çakır Morin, Arzu (5 December 2013). "Türk kahvesi Unesco korumasında".
- Aarssen, Jeroen; Backus, Ad (2000). Colloquial Turkish.
- "Food in Turkey - Turkish Food, Turkish Cuisine". www.foodbycountry.com. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "The Media Industry in Turkey". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Turkey country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2006). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Tiraj". Medyatava. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
- "Gazete Tirajları". Gazeteciler.com. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
- Jenna Krajeski. "Turkey: Soap Operas and Politics". Pulitzer Center. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook.
- Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook.
- Reed, Fred A. (1999). Anatolia Junction: a Journey into Hidden Turkey. Burnaby, B.C.: Talonbooks [sic]. 320 p., ill. with b&w photos. ISBN 0-88922-426-9
- Revolinski, Kevin (2006). The Yogurt Man Cometh: Tales of an American Teacher in Turkey. Çitlembik.
- Roxburgh, David J. (ed.) (2005). Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600–1600. Royal Academy of Arts. ISBN 1-903973-56-2.
- Turkey: A Country Study (1996). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0864-6.
- Cîrlig, Carmen-Cristina (2013). Turkey's regional power aspirations. Library of the European Parliament. p. 8.
- Official website of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
- Turkey entry at The World Factbook
- Turkey from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Turkey at DMOZ
- Turkey profile from the BBC News
- Turkey at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Turkey's Official Tourism Portal
- OECD Better Life Index
- The Incredible Turk (1958 American film on the Turkish Revolution) on YouTube
- Turkey travel guide from Wikivoyage
Geographic data related to Turkey at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Turkey from International Futures
- World Bank Trade Summary Statistics for Turkey 2012
- Macroeconomic Data for Turkey Online